According to Edersheim [Quotes in blue] who wrote over 100 years ago: “Scarcely any other festive season could have left so continuous an impression on the religious life of Israel as the ‘New Moons.’ Recurring at the beginning of every month, and marking the solemn proclamation of the day, by—’It is sanctified,’ was intended to give a hallowed character to each and every month, while the blasting of the priests’ trumpets on every New Moon day and the special sacrifices offered, summoned the people to appear before the Eternal and thus bring themselves into ‘remembrance’ before Him.
The first visible light beginning each month was a time to feast, and to seek religious instruction and edification such as Elisha seems to have held in 2 Kings 4:23
The observance of the first visible light of the new moon was kept throughout the history of Israel [until the modern Rabbins gained control of Judaism and rejected the scriptural calendar LIGHT based New Moons to begin their months with the conjunction of Darkness in 1178 AD].
From Moses through the Temple period, month to month the New Moon day began the months with the first visible Light of the New Moon, as an outward ordinance, even in the decay of religious life [Isa 1:13; Hosea 2:11].
The prophecies of Isaiah and Ezekiel proclaim that in the millennial dispensation, the New Moon Trumpet will summon ‘all flesh to worship before God’
Isaiaj 66:23 And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD.
Ezekiel tells us that the closed eastern gate to the inner court of the new Millennial Temple will be opened on Sabbaths and the New Moons, thus equating the New Moon with the weekly Sabbath as a time of worship. This showing how very important God regards the New Moon first Light observance.
Ezekiel 46:1 Thus saith the Lord GOD; The gate of the inner court that looketh toward the east shall be shut the six working days; but on the sabbath it shall be opened, and in the day of the new moon it shall be opened.
“In New Testament times the New Moon was kept by the faithful Christians and expressly characterized as ‘a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ”
Let no man therefore judge [Let no man criticize you for eating lawful clean meats (as opposed to vegetarianism) or for drinking wine; or for keeping the New Moons, or for keeping God’s Sabbaths and annual Festivals holy] you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holy day, or of the new moon, or of the Sabbath: which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.’—Colossians 2:16, 17.
The new moon along with the Sabbath and Festivals as well as the Passover wine and the eating of those clean meats sanctified by God, is intended to teach us to put a difference between the holy and the profane and they are parts of the whole Word of God: which is Christ.
Meaning that the clean meats and wine (particularly the lamb and wine of Passover and the Feasts), as well as keeping the New Moons and Sabbaths; point to Christ the Creator who made them.
For much more on the New Moons please see this article:
The Determination of the New Moon
The first visible light of the New Moon was observed wherever God dwelled; which was first [from Moses] at the Tabernacle in the wilderness and then at the Tabernacle in Shiloh once they had entered the land; and finally at Jerusalem when God chose Jerusalem to place his name there.
Since the moon’s cycle is no more than 30 days; they would simply count 27 days from the month’s sighting to begin looking for the next New Moon.
Because of the necessity to declare the New Moons as soon as possible after sunset, observers watched for the first visible light of the New Moon from the immediate vicinity of the Temple in Jerusalem. Those who thought they saw the moon’s first light then rushed to give witness to a special committee of the Mosaic 70 [Sanhedrin] established for that purpose and when two or more credible witness were heard, the committee sanctified the new month.
They could of course easily calculate the first visible light of the New Moon, but potential issues like possible cloud cover or a short lag time between sunset and moonset made actual sightings essential.
The New Moon is the Head of the Month
The Head of the month, determined by the first visible light of the new moon, is a New Beginning; and a special time to remember the Headship of God over his Creation; we are to observe the first light of the new moon to remember that the Creator is the true HEAD of teh Ekklesia and the spiritual LIGHT of God which drives away the darkness of ignorance.
The Moon being new; pictures a New Beginning and a monthly REMINDER to dedicate ourselves to godliness, to particularly repent of sin; and to acknowledge the Authority of God as our Sovereign King and HEAD.
God in his wisdom has given us the weekly Sabbath to worship Him, and he has given us a monthly New Moon time to worship Him, and he has given us His annual Festivals: All for our good, as a help to keep our hearts and minds always on Him!
The Blowing of Trumpets
In the law of God the blasting of the Silver Trumpets is enjoined: to call the people to God. The two silver trumpets were also to be sounded over all Sabbath, New Moon and Festival sacrifices offered by the high priest on behalf of the whole people; to call on God to remember the people and accept the sacrifices offered by the high priest on behalf of all the people.
In spiritual New Covenant terms, the two silver trumpets were a figure of calling all people to Christ by God the Father; and of Christ calling all people to God the Father [therefore there are two silver trumpets]; and of calling on God the Father to remember [see] and accept the sacrifice offered by Christ as our spiritual High Priest.
Num 10:10 Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days [Sabbaths, Appointed Times and Festivals] , and in the beginnings of your months [New Moons] , ye shall blow with the [the two silver] trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings [The special offerings of those days; not the personal offerings made at other times]; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God [To call you to remember and come to God]: I am the LORD your God.
The sounding of the silver trumpets called on God to remember the people and to accept the sacrifices made by the high priest for the whole people; this being a physical type of calling on God to remember the people and the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, offered by the eternal High Priest, for the people!
The Two Silver Trumpets and the Shofar
On the Feast of Trumpets we have two different kinds of trumpet: First the two silver trumpets calling God to remember the people and calling the people to God [I.E. Reconciling the two] at the place that God has placed his name; and second, the shofar of rejoicing in every community throughout the land.
Leviticus 23:23 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 23:24 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets [Strong’s 8643 Shout for joy, hence the rejoicing of sounding the shofar being added to the silver trumpets], an holy convocation. 23:25 Ye shall do no servile work therein: but ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.
Numbers 29:1 And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work: it is a day of blowing the trumpets [8643 Shout for joy, hence the rejoicing of sounding the shofar being added to the silver trumpets] unto you.
When the temple was destroyed and the two silver trumpets lost; the sounding of the two silver trumpets was lost for a time, but the blasting of the shofars continues.
The sounding of the silver trumpets was a type of calling God to remember the people and of calling the people to remember and come to God.
The Command Concerning the Silver Trumpets
The first section is about the journey in the wilderness, during which the trumpets were used to call the people to meet with Moses [the mediator of the Mosaic Covenant]. This a type of the calling of those in the spiritual wilderness to come to Jesus Christ the Mediator of the new Covenant.
Numbers 10:1-10 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 10:2 Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps.
10:3 And when they shall blow with them [both], all the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation [to assemble before God].
10:4 And if they blow but with one trumpet, then the princes, which are heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto thee.
10:5 When ye blow an alarm [a special call], then the camps that lie on the east parts shall go forward. 10:6 When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys.
10:7 But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm [a special call to battle].
10:8 And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the [silver] trumpets; and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your generations.
The spiritually called out are called into the priesthood of Jesus Christ and in the spiritual sense are to be silver trumpets calling the nations to God. Which is the task given to the Ekklesia.
Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. 19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. Amen.
In this section the silver trumpets are sounded to call God to remember the people.
10:9 And if ye go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall be remembered before the LORD your God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies.
10:10 Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God.
Edersheim: “The object of sounding the silver trumpets is expressly stated to have been ‘for a memorial,’ that they might be remembered by God, specifically that God might remember the people and that the people might be called to come before God; it being specially added: ‘I am the LORD [YHVH] your God.’
At the blast of the priest’s silver trumpets the people were to come before God, acknowledging the Eternal as ‘the LORD their God. In the spiritual New Covenant sense coming before God in sincere repentance to acknowledge the authority of God as their Head, to remember God; that they might be remembered and delivered by God “
Eidersheim: “Every occasion of blowing the silver trumpets, whether at New Moons, at the Feast of Trumpets, at other festivals, on the Sabbaths; or in the Sabbatical year and Year of Jubilee, or in the time of war, was to call upon God to remember and deliver His people; and was a public acknowledgment of the Eternal as sovereign above all else and the true Head of God’s people.”
The Sacrifices of the New Moon
Besides the blowing of trumpets on every New Moon, certain sacrifices were ordered to be offered on the New Moon (Num 28:11-15).
All sacrifices in the Sacrificial System are lessons and allegories of the atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ.
The two great aspects of the Law of Offerings were the personal offerings brought by individuals; and the offerings made on behalf of the whole congregation by the high priest. See: Understanding The Daily and The Sacrificial System
Edersheim “The sin offering is offered to atone for sin, the bringing of that offering signifying repentance on the part of the individual offerer; while the high priest offered sin offerings on behalf of the whole called out people. The physical sin offering representative of the sacrifice of the Lamb of God, who fully and completely atoned for sincerely repented sin.
The Burnt Offering was entirely consumed by fire on the altar with the smoke rising as a pleasant odor to God the Father.”
The spiritual significance being a life of wholehearted service to God the Father; which is a very pleasant perfume of service to the Father in heaven.
The Burnt Offering is typical of the life of Christ in wholehearted service to God the Father, Jesus giving himself totally in service to God the Father, Which is an example that we are to follow.
The New Moon day Burnt Offerings, consisted of bullocks which are typical of strong patient service bringing forth much increase. The bullock or ox pictures the strong patient labor of Jesus Christ which brings forth much increase in bringing in the fruits of humanity into the family of God.
Proverbs 14:4 Where no oxen are, the crib is clean: but much increase is by the strength of the ox.
The ram pictures Jesus Christ as the HEAD of the flock of God; and the spotless lambs picture meekness and humility before God and a total complete innocence of any guile or sin.
Numbers 28:11-15 And in the beginnings of your months [on the New Moons] ye shall offer a burnt offering unto the LORD; two young bullocks, and one ram, seven lambs of the first year without spot; 28:12 And three tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one bullock; and two tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one ram;
The grain [unleavened bread] offering picturing Jesus Christ as the Bread of Life, and the wine offering pictures the shed blood of Christ. These two being explained by Christ at his last Passover in the flesh.
28:13 And a several tenth deal of flour mingled with oil for a meat [grain] offering unto one [each] lamb; for a burnt offering of a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.
28:14 And their drink offerings shall be half an hin of wine unto a bullock, and the third part of an hin unto a ram, and a fourth part of an hin unto a lamb: this is the burnt offering of every month throughout the months of the year.
The Passover offering by every individual applied to the called out of Egypt [an analogy of the spiritual first fruits] and may be a lamb or a goat kid: yet here at the beginning of every month, as at the Fast of Atonement, a kid of the goats is specifically commanded as a sin offering by the high priest for the whole people.
28:15 And one kid of the goats for a sin offering unto the LORD shall be offered, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
When we say the words “the Lamb of God” it is very important that we understand what is meant by the application of the term lamb to Jesus Christ. Lamb means far more than some helpless creature; it means absolute pure innocence and guiltless of any sin.
All these sacrifices picture Jesus Christ in his service to God the Father, for the people; and are also an example that we should follow, purifying ourselves from all guile and sin and serving God the Father in Christ-like wholehearted zeal.
We are commanded to sanctify every month by these sacrifices; and in spiritual New Covenant terms, we are to sanctify each new month with a worship service [Bible Study], acknowledging that the Creator has made all things and that he alone is the personal Head of every called out individual. and we are to remember the wholehearted service of Christ to God the Father to save humanity from bondage to sin and eternal death.
Edershiem: “These special New Moon sacrifices most appropriately mark ‘the beginnings of months’ (Num 28:11). It is a universal principle, that ‘the first’ always stands for the whole— And so the burnt-offerings and the sin-offerings at ‘the beginning’ of each month consecrated or sanctified [set apart and dedicated to God] the entire month.”
Brethren, by starting our months by the biblical first visible Light of the New Moon as the Creator commanded us in Genesis and sanctifying what God has created, by coming before God with a Bible Study: We are obeying God, acknowledging God as Creator of all things, and dedicating ourselves to godliness during the coming month.
The weekly Sabbath is a time to dedicate ourselves to God and acknowledge His sovereignty as Creator; and the New Moons are a monthly re-dedication of ourselves to our Mighty God!
The Order of Service on New Moon Days.
The evening before an expected new moon sighting a special committee of the 70, established as New Moon experts, examined witnesses in the early evening soon after sunset to determine the appearance of the new moon.
As soon as the required number [two or more] of credible witness were proven, the proclamation of the Council “It is sanctified!” consecrated the month and New Moon day.
The council did not establish or set the New Moon day; they proclaimed what God had done and which had been seen by witnesses. They took no decision upon themselves they merely authenticated the two or more witnesses on behalf of the whole nation.
Immediately afterwards, the priests blew the silver trumpets which marked the monthly New Moon Feast; and the watchers were rewarded with a meal.
Then in the morning after the morning daily sacrifice, the prescribed New Moon offerings were brought, the blood of the burnt-offerings being thrown round the base of the altar below the red line, and the rest poured out into the channel at the south side of the altar; while the blood of the sin-offering was sprinkled or dropped from the finger on the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, beginning from the east, the rest being poured out, as that of the burnt-offerings.
The two bullocks of the burnt-offerings were hung up and flayed on the uppermost of the three rows of hooks in the court, the rams on the middle, and the lambs on the lowest hooks.
In all no less than 107 priests officiated at the New Moon burnt-offering—20 with every bullock, 11 with every ram, and 8 with every lamb, including, of course, those who carried the appropriate meat- and drink-offerings.
At the offering of these sacrifices the silver trumpets were again blown. All of the special New Moon sacrifices were slain at the north side of the altar, while the peace- and freewill-offerings, which private Israelites were wont at such seasons to bring, were sacrificed at the south side.
To Sum Up
The New Moons
God calls people to come to him and learn of him every seventh day on the weekly Sabbath, he also calls people to come before Him on the New Moons and on various annual Festivals and Appointed Times.
God calls people to appear before him on the New Moons, on the head of every month; to sanctify the whole month and set it apart to godliness. We are to appear before God to acknowledge Him as our God, King, Head and Sovereign, and to rededicate ourselves to godliness!
The two silver trumpets were sounded in the temple over the special sacrifices offered by the high priest on behalf of the whole people; calling on God to remember His people and to accept the sacrifices offered on behalf of the whole people; as a type of calling on God the Father to accept the sacrifice of Jesus Christ the Lamb of God for all people in future.
While the shofar are sounded in every city and town across the land in great rejoicing over the mercy of our mighty LORD in redeeming the people by giving his life for us.