Worldwatch News and Prophecy

A First Response to the COGWA Calendar Paper: Part 2

I want to begin this post by asking Jim Franks and the leaders of COGWA, and all the leaders and elders of all the COG Groups these questions.

You claim that the Jews must be followed on the calendar because they have the scriptures.  Why do you not follow them on the dates of Pentecost and Passover [which are calendar issues] and then claim that it is imperative to follow them on the calendar?

The Jews are divided into many groups but I want to point out the two most ancient groups; the more modern Rabbinical movement Rabbins who rely on traditions and  human reason to go contrary to the word of God, and make the word of God of no effect by their reasoning’s and traditions;  and the Karaite Jews who are faithful to the whole Old Testament scripture and keep the Biblical Calendar.

Did you know that the Rabbins whom you claim preserved the scriptures; did not preserve the scriptures? 

It was the scribes who copied and preserved the scriptures! And the scribes were NOT Rabbinic Jews!

Guess who these scribes were?  They were adjuncts of the priesthood the Sadducees, who after the destruction of the temple and Judea, developed into  Karaite Judaism.   Let me clarify; Karaite Judaism came from the scribes who copied and preserved the scriptures and they were very closely associated with the Sadducees in the temple period.

WHY do you follow the apostate Rabbins and their humanly devised Calendar simply because they claim to be Jewish, while they depart from the scriptures wholesale?  

And WHY do you not follow the calendar of the Bible, used by the Karaite Jews, who are descended from the scribes who preserved the scriptures  and who are Jews indeed, being faithful to Moses and the Old Testament?   and who’s calendar Jesus Christ accepted for his use and the use of the his called out people the COG  without criticism?

How can you claim that there is NO Biblical Calendar in scripture, when the Karaite Jews have their Biblical calendar from the days of Moses?  and I can personally find such a calendar in the scriptures independently of the Karaites, which I post below?  Why cannot you “Doctors of the Word” not see the obvious?

Answer me:  Why do you choose to follow the obviously apostate Rabbinic Jews and choose NOT to follow the faithful to Old Testament scripture Jews [scribes], who actually preserved the scriptures?

Go to their website and see the Biblical Calendar of faithful Mosaic Judaism for yourself!  Then read the calendar that I found in the Bible and tell me if there is any difference! 

Let me be clear that Nehemiah Gordon and the Karaites are Unitarian Jews and do not benefit from the New Testament which they reject; however on the Calendar they do use the Biblical Calendar in the scriptures of the Old Testament, and it was to their forefathers the ancient scribes that the scriptures were committed to be accurately and correctly copied and preserved.

I am going to present the Jewish Karaite  paper on the New Moons here.  This was the calendar used by the Scribes and Sadducees at the time of Christ and has been preserved to this day by their descendants.

The New Moon in the Hebrew Bible

The Biblical month begins with the crescent New Moon, also called First Visible Sliver. The Hebrew word for month (Hodesh) literally means New Moon and only by extension the period between one New Moon and the next.

The Rabbanite Midrash relates that when God said to Moses “This month (HODESH) shall be for you the beginning of months” (Ex 12,2) the Almighty pointed up into the heavens at the crescent New Moon and said “When you see like this, sanctify! [=declare New Moon day]“.  This Rabbinic fairy-tale highlights an important point, namely that the Bible never comes out and says we should determine the beginning of months based on the New Moon.  The reason for this is that the term for “Month” (Hodesh) itself implies that the month begins with the crescent New Moon.  As will be seen, this would have been obvious to any ancient Israelite present when Moses recited the prophecies of YHWH to the Children of Israel and therefore there was no need to elucidate this concept any more than such terms as “light” or “dark”. However, due to the long exile, we have lost the use of Biblical Hebrew in day to day speech.  Therefore, we will have to reconstruct the meaning of Hodesh from the usage of the word in the Biblical text using sound linguistic principles.

He Created the Moon for Holidays

There can be no doubt that the biblical Holidays are dependent on the moon.  The strongest proof of this is the passage in Ps 104,19 which declares:

“He created the moon for Mo’adim [appointed times]“

The Hebrew term Mo’adim [appointed times] is the same word used to describe the Biblical Holidays.  Leviticus 23, which contains a catalogue of the Biblical Holidays opens with the statement: “These are the Mo’adim [appointed times] of YHWH, holy convocations which you shall proclaim in their appointed times [Mo’adam].”.  So when the Psalmist tells us that God created the moon for Mo’adim [appointed times] he means that the moon was created to determine the time of the Mo’adim of YHWH, that is, the Biblical Holidays.

“Hodesh” Is Related To the Moon

The above verse clearly teaches us that the holidays are related to the moon.  But when the Torah was given, Ps 104 had not yet been written by the Levitical prophets, and the question still remains of how the ancient Israelites could have known this.  The answer is that the Hebrew word for month (Hodesh) itself indicates a connection to the moon.  We can see this connection in a number of instances in which Hodesh (month) is used interchangeably with the word “Yerah”, the common Biblical Hebrew word for moon, which by extension also means “month”.  For example:

“…in the month (Yerah) of Ziv, which is the Second month (Hodesh)…” (1Kings 6,1)

“…in the month (Yerah MOON) of Ethanim… which is the Seventh month (Hodesh)…” (1Kings 8,2)

Another proof that Hodesh is related to the moon (Yerah) is the phrase “A Hodesh (month) of days” (Gen 29,14; Nu 11,20-21) [meaning a period of 29 or 30 days] which is equivalent to the phrase “A Yerah (month/ moon) of days” (Dt 21,13; 2Ki 15,13).  Clearly then Hodesh is related to “Yerah”, which itself literally means “moon”.  

“Hodesh” Means New Moon (Day)

The primary meaning of Hodesh (month) is actually “New Moon” or “New Moon Day” and it is only by extension [over time] that it came to mean “month”, that is, the period between one New Moon and the next.  This primary meaning is preserved in a number of passages such as 1Sam 20,5 in which Jonathan says to David “Tomorrow is the New Moon (Hodesh; month)”.  Clearly, in this verse Hodesh is used to refer to the specific day on which the month begins and not the entire month.  Another passage which uses Hodesh in its primary sense is Ez 46,1 which talks about “The Day (Yom) of the New Moon (Ha-Hodesh)”.  Clearly in this verse Hodesh (Month) is a specific event and the beginning of the month is the day on which this event (New Moon) occurs. 

The Biblical New Moon is the “First Crescent”

“Hodesh” (New Moon), is derived from the root H.D.SH. meaning “new” or “to make new/ renew”.  The Crescent New Moon is called Hodesh because it is the first time the moon is seen anew after being concealed for several days at the end of the lunar cycle.  At the end of the lunar month the moon is close to the sun 1 and eventually reaches the point of “conjunction” when it passes between the Sun and the Earth.2  As a result, around the time of conjunction very little of the moon’s illuminated surface faces the Earth and it is not visible through the infinitely brighter glare of the sun.  After the moon moves past the sun it continues towards the opposite side of the Earth.  As it gets farther away from the sun the percentage of its illuminated surface facing the Earth increases and one evening shortly after sunset the moon is seen anew after being invisible for 1.5-3.5 days.  Because the moon is seen anew after a period of invisibility the ancients called it a “New Moon” or “Hodesh” (from Hadash meaning “new”). 

Crescent New Moon vs. Astronomical New Moon

Many people have been led astray by the inaccurate use in modern languages of the term “New Moon”.  Modern astronomers adopted this otherwise unused term, which had always referred to the first visible sliver, and used it to refer to conjunction (when the Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun, at which time it is not visible).  The astronomers soon realized that the inaccurate use of “New Moon” to refer to conjunction would lead to confusion so to be more accurate scientists now distinguish between “Astronomical New Moon” and “Crescent New Moon”.  “Astronomical New Moon” means New Moon as the term is used by astronomers, i.e. conjunction.  In contrast, “Crescent New Moon” uses the term in the original meaning of the first visible sliver.  A good English dictionary should reflect both meanings.  For example, the Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged Edition defines New Moon as: “The moon either when in conjunction with the sun or soon after being either invisible [Astronomical New Moon] or visible [Crescent New Moon] only as a slender crescent.” (square brackets added by Nehemiah Gordon).


The COGWA Paper

As far as I know this COGWA paper has not been published.  It has been distributed to the elders to help them fight the word of God when they are questioned by their brethren.

I am taking the gloves off with this and I do not intend to pull any punches here, as this subject is a test subject, about whether people will obey the word of God; or whether they will cleave to what they think, regardless of the facts. 

Those who reject the word of God and the facts, to follow and cleave to obvious error; are rebelling against God and his word and have the Mark of the Beast; which is rebellion against the word of God.  

This paper is consistent with the teachings of most of the COG Groups and this series is applicable to all those who follow apostate men instead of the word of God on the calendar issue. 

Those people who claim that we are bound to follow the apostate rabbinic Jews, even when they depart from scripture, because they are the custodians of scripture; should read and obey the scriptures about this situation.

Deu 13    If there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth thee a sign or a wonder, 2 And the sign or the wonder come to pass, whereof he spake unto thee, saying, Let us go after other gods, which thou hast not known, and let us serve them;

3 Thou shalt not hearken unto the words of that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams: for the Lord your God proveth you, to know whether ye love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul.

4 Ye shall walk after the Lord your God, and fear him, and keep his commandments, and obey his voice, and ye shall serve him, and cleave unto him.

5 And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be put to death; because he hath spoken to turn you away from the Lord your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, to thrust thee out of the way which the Lord thy God commanded thee to walk in. So shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee.

Ladies and gentlemen:  Today your God is testing and proving you! whether you are diligent to obey the word of the Lord your God; or whether you will obey false teachers from the Rabbins and or the COG leaders and elders!

Hear the word of God!

Deu 5:31  But as for thee, stand thou here by me, and I will speak unto thee all the commandments, and the statutes, and the judgments, which thou shalt teach them, that they may do them in the land which I give them to possess it. 32 Ye shall observe to do therefore as the Lord your God hath commanded you: ye shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the left.

To begin, this paper is filled with irrelevant extraneous material to confuse from the real issues; it is full of contradictions and deceit, as well as with statements so patently false that I cannot conceive of them being anything but outright falsehoods to justify the clinging to false tradition. 

This paper is so full of outright falsehood which are so very easily proved wrong, that it is obviously not an honest effort to seek truth, but rather is a dishonest effort to justify a preconceived position.  The intellectual dishonesty of this paper says a great deal  about the character of its authors and their rejection of the word of God, to do as they want, just like the Jews of Jeremiah’s time. 

For these reasons and for the edification of the faithful brethren, this paper needs to be publically critiqued and its many errors exposed. 

The elders and brethren in all the COG Groups need to take a good hard look at this six part series, because we will all be judged by God on whether you are faithfully teaching God’s word, or are teaching false tradition and leading the brethren away from the wholehearted keeping of the scriptures.

Please do share this material with friends, bookmark it for further study and print it out for your own records.

This paper actually falls neatly into the Jeremiah study, which is about doing our own thing instead of being zealous to learn and keep the word of God.  These leaders following their own ways and justifying their false traditions in rebellion against the word of God, are like Judah in the days of Jeremiah.

This is a very long post and I make a number of statements lacking the space to back them up fully here, so you may want to reference to the previous three posts in this series.

This paper is published and critiqued under the fair use provisions of the copyright act.  The Paper will be in blue text to differentiate it from my comments.

My first comment is that the New King James Bible is not a modernized version of the KJV.  It is completely rewritten with an evangelical bias, with hundreds of  changes from the KJV and the Textus Receptus.

The NKJV is not faithful to the best documents in the original languages and is a apostate text created and copyrighted for financial gain by evangelicals to forward their beliefs.  If you can’t prove your positions by the Bible, then rewrite the Bible.  That motto has been followed from the writing of the Latin Vulgate; to the NKJV, the JW Bible, all of the modern New Age Bibles and even the COG  Fred Coulter Bible which strays from the manuscripts; in particular the rerwriting of Luke on the Passover.



Study Paper

Approved by the Ministerial Board of Directors

July, 2013

© 2013 Church of God, a Worldwide Association, Inc.

All scripture quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are taken from the New King James Version

(© 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc.). Used by permission. All rights reserved.


 Occasionally there are questions within the Church about the Hebrew calendar. The purpose of this study paper is to explain the position of the Church of God, a Worldwide Association, on this subject.

 In order to come to a conclusion about whether to use the Hebrew calendar, it is necessary to answer key questions, such as whether there is sufficient information in the Bible itself to formulate a calendar; the history and accuracy of the Hebrew calendar; who had authority to establish the calendar; whether the calendar is based on observation, calculation or both; and how the calendar was administered and preserved throughout the ages.

 They admit up front that this is merely a rehash of the discredited previous papers on the subject.

 Two exhaustive studies were completed on this subject in the 1990s. The conclusion reached in this paper is consistent with that reached by the Church of God down through the years—that the Hebrew calendar (also known as the Jewish calendar) was preserved by the proper Jewish authorities (who also preserved the Hebrew Scriptures) and is, therefore, the correct calendar to use for observing the holy days. 


 Observance of the annual holy days is one of the fundamental beliefs of the Church of God, a Worldwide Association. We believe this is a biblical requirement commanded for Christians today. It is obviously important to observe these annual Sabbaths on the correct dates. They emphasize that the correct dates for the Holy Days are very important. Remember that. And, in order to observe them as a group, we must agree on the calendar that will be used. Depending on which calendar is followed, observance of these days can be at distinctly different times, possibly weeks apart.

While some have wrongly devised their own calendars, others have studied the scriptures to learn what God has said about the calendar in his word.  This is a subtle but obvious attempt to claim that what is contained in the word of God, is only some individuals own personal idea.  It is a deceitful statement meant to disparage anyone who disagrees with them as being apostate.

 Over the years, a few individuals have developed their own calendars, which they propose the Church use to determine the observance of the holy days rather than the Hebrew calendar. How can we be assured that a calendar is accurate and compatible with Scripture? Is there such a calendar?

 Where in Scripture can you find the “biblical” calendar?  

That question is very easily answered:   A calendar is only a record of the passing of days, weeks, months and years.  We find these time periods of time clearly defined in scripture, hence there IS a Biblical calendar.


The evening and the morning were the first day Gen 1:5; the evening and the morning were the second day Gen 1:8.  This formula is repeated for six times,  revealing clearly and unmistakably how a day is to be defined.  In Deu 23:11 and Jos 8:29,  the terms evening and sundown are used interchangeably, revealing that the word evening is meant as sunset.  Now, God made two great lights, one to rule the day and one to rule the night Gen 1:16.  The sun rules the day and when it sets it is no longer ruling,  therefore the day has ended and the night has begun.  In the beginning there were no clocks, the lights of the heavens were man’s clock.  All a person had to do, was to look up and see that the sun had set, to know that the day was over. God made the things about measuring time, simple and easy.


And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it Gen 2:2-3.  On the seventh day God rested from His labours and spent the day with the man, whom He had created.  The seventh day was set apart for holy use at the time of creation, for Adam and ALL his descendants M’r 2:27. At the end of a seventh day, a new week begins.  The eighth day always represents the beginning of a new cycle of seven (let the reader understand).  And so we have the week of seven days, ending with the end of the seventh day!


We worship God on the New Moon by acknowledging the New Moon and the beginning of a New Month.  We go to God in prayer and thank Him for His gift of life and time and another month; and we do some extra study in our Bibles.  In the coming Kingdom; all shall come before God (probably in some kind of official service) on the New Moons. Is 66:23.  Paul tells the Colossians NOT to allow anyone to condemn them for observing Sabbaths and New Moons, Col 2:16.

It is so very inconsistent that many in the Church of God justify the observance of the Feast of Tabernacles by quoting Zech 14:16: And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the Feast of Tabernacles.

They then go on to ignore what Isaiah has to say, Is 66:23  And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD.  One would think that the next verse would open their eyes: Is 66:24 : And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the men that have transgressed against me: for their worm shall not die (not perish but shall eat them up, ie maggots that turn into flies), neither shall their fire be quenched (put out, it shall burn until all fuel (bodies) is consumed); and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh.

They are NOT CONSISTENT in their thinking.  Now the citizens of Colosse were Gentiles who had never before observed the laws of God.  They began to observe what Paul had instructed! Would the Apostle Paul have instructed them to do something that was unnecessary? or contrary to scripture?  Why did he encourage them to continue observing New Moons in the face of objections by others, if he thought that observation was unnecessary?  David wrote that  He appointed the Moon for seasons Psalm 104:19 and special Burnt Offering were to be made on the New Moons 1 Ch 23:31, Ezra 3:5.  The New Moons were NOT Sabbaths or Holy Days but they were consecrated as natural divisions of time appointed by Almighty God.

At the conjunction of the moon there is no light at all.  On most of our published “Christian” (sanctified by the Roman Pontiff) calendars the date of the conjunction of the moon is marked as the new moon, since this is how astronomers reckon things.  A day or two later the first visible light from the moon can be seen.  Over the next two weeks, the moon appears to grow bigger, fuller and rounder until it is completely full, A FULL MOON.  After this event the moon begins to shrink, getting a little smaller each day, until about two weeks after the full moon there is again no visible moon at all, this is called the conjunction.  If we were to search the sky we would see nothing of the moon at all.  Then a day or two later we would see the first visible light of a NEW CRESCENT MOON. 

Why a new moon?  Because the day before there was no moon!  We are now seeing something NEW in the night sky.  This new light is the beginning of a month, the beginning of a NEW cycle.  The moon waxes and wanes throughout the month, until it finally disappears and the month ends, even as the day ends when the sun disappears over the horizon.  Later, when a NEW LIGHT, A NEW MOON appears in the sky; a new month begins!  How awesome and simple! It is only necessary to look up and acknowledge the light in the night sky to discern when a new month begins!

Since all days begin at sunset, the first day of each month also begins at sunset.  Therefore the observance of the New Moon must take place directly after sunset, for the beginning of the day and the beginning of the month both start at sunset.  If a New Moon were to be observed in the morning, then the new month would begin at the next sunset.  Otherwise we would have the new month beginning in the middle of a day!  The new month BEGINS with the SUNSET starting the first COMPLETE day after the New Moon is observed.  Otherwise, one could be polluting a High Holy Day (The Feast of Trumpets) for a full half day without knowing it.  A High Holy Day CANNOT begin in the middle of a day and it CANNOT begin before the New Moon beginning the month is OBSERVED!  Such a Holy Day must begin like ALL other days, AT SUNSET!


In our round world the question arises; When does the new moon begin?  Are we to observe it in Jerusalem or somewhere else? 

The answer is that God made the heavens our calendar, at creation.  Wherever the new moon is observed by the naked eye, without aids, such as telescopes or binoculars, that is where the new moon begins on the planet’s surface.  Whenever and wherever a new moon is seen, that moment begins the new moon day!  As the earth turns, that New Moon will become visible in each new time zone. It is true that the New Moon can be seen near the equator sooner (perhaps as much as a day) than in more Northern and Southern latitudes, therefore we make our primary observation at Jerusalem.


God said to Moses;  this month shall be the first month of the year to you Ex 12:2.  During this first month the early harvest shall begin Lev 23:5-14 and Deu 16:9.  The year begins with the first visible light of the first crescent moon of the first month.  The year consists of twelve months, therefore at the end of the twelfth month the year ends and a new year begins.  Thus bringing to a completion the seasons and completing one revolution of the earth around the sun.  Because  the twelve months do not add up to a complete solar year there is a loss of about ten days a year, of the lunar year over the solar year.  If this were allowed to continue without any correction, the end of the twelfth month would quickly fall behind the solar year,  throwing the spring holydays out of the spring harvest season.  Therefore a thirteenth month is intercalated every few years to bring the lunar back into line with the solar year. 

This addition of a thirteenth month is essential to maintain the holydays in their proper seasons.  The thirteenth month should be added whenever the spring harvest in Judea will not be ripe enough to begin reaping by the  day of the Wave Offering on the day after the Sabbath which comes after Passover. Note; the Wave Offering is to be made during the week of Unleavened Bread, therefore, if Passover falls on a Sabbath, the Wave Offering is to be made on the First Day of Unleavened Bread.  This is because the next day after the Sabbath, occurring one week later, would fall outside of the feast of Unleavened Bread.

 Or by what authority can a person devise his own calendar?  

I respond by asking: By WHAT AUTHORITY did the Rabbins depart from the word of God to devise their own calendar? 

An interesting question since it was the Rabbins who departed from the scripture on the calendar which was observed for millennia until 358 AD. And it is this departure from the word of God by the apostate Christ cursing Rabbins, that the COGWA and others are following.

They depart from God’s word and then claim that those who are faithful to the word of God are the people in error!  Amazing!

No person has any authority to set up his own calendar and by this question COGWA discredits themselves; for they follow a non biblical calendar set up and first approved by the Sanhedrin in 358 AD and not finalized until 1178 AD by Moses Maimonides.

Notice they start off by admitting that this is NOT an open minded search for truth, but an attempt to establish a preconceived notion!  This very statement immediately destroys any validity of this paper;  Admitting that it is spiritually and intellectually dishonest.

 In order to establish the use of the Hebrew calendar by the Church of God, a Worldwide Association, this paper discusses the following questions:

1. Is there enough information in Scripture to develop a calendar?   The key word here is “develop”  of course we may not develop a calendar;  the Biblical  Calendar is already contained in the scriptures and needs no “developing.

2. How was the Hebrew calendar developed?  God’s calendar did not develop!  It was commanded by God! 

The apostate Rabbins did  depart from God and devise their own non biblical calendar in the fourth century ad.  Their calendar was NOT used previous to the fourth century AD.

3. How accurate is the Hebrew calendar? 

If you mean the modern Rabbinic calendar used by COGWA:  It is NOT accurate and is so acknowledged by the Jews of today who want to change it for its inaccuracies.  See Israeli New Moon Society

4. Who has authority for preserving the calendar?  

The only authority for Converted people is the whole word of God; not the word those who reject the word fo God to devise their own calendar!   Authority for preserving the scriptures was given to the Jews, and they preserved the words while apostatizing from keeping them;  thinking that they knew better than the word of God.  Modern Judaism is a series of traditions making the word of God of no effect as Jesus himself said.

We are commanded not to heed the traditions of the Jews who [which includes the modern Rabbinic Calendar] follow their own false ways, instead to stand upon the whole word of God.  To copy a book in no way means to understand or to keep its sayings.

Remember the Jeremiah study, or the words of Paul and Jesus?

5. Is it necessary for an accurate calendar to be determined by observation, or can it be properly determined by calculation? 

A false question!  The issue is NOT observation versus calculation as the two are complementary not contrary. 

This is a false red herring statement!  The real issue is whether we should begin the month by the LIGHT of the moon as God commanded, or by the darkness of average conjunctions as the Babylon Mysteries did, and whether we can add to the word of God as this apostate Rabbinic Calendar does..

This is an attempt to say that the Rabbinic Calendar is calculated and the Biblical calendar is only observed and cannot be calculated; which is totally false.  The Biblical Calendar can easily be calculated and confirmed by observation of the first light of the moon whenever possible. 

On the other hand the modern Rabbinic calendar is calculated and is impossible to observe, since it is calculated on the average time between conjunctions and not the first light of the moon as God commands.

The issue is NOT calculation versus observation!  The issue is on what basis the calculation made:  The first light of the moon as God commands; or the average time between conjunctions when there is only darkness and not any light?

6. Are there legitimate rules of postponement? 

NO.  the Bible does not recognize any postponements that say that we can decide for ourselves when his High Days are; instead of relying on the word of God!

Can a Calendar Be Developed From Scripture?

A false question!  God’s calendar is clearly in the scripture; and further we have the example of Jesus Christ who lived by the Biblical Calendar which is well known to have been in use until long after the destruction of the temple by the Romans.

Some will argue that there is a calendar outlined in Scripture; but when questioned, they generally admit that there are only “clues” and “hints” of such a calendar.

Absolute nonsense!  The Biblical Calendar is clear, as I have pointed out above, and these people KNOW better.  They are being knowingly deceitful, because they will NOT obey God and would cling to traditions that they KNOW are false.

The Bible does contain information on years, months and days; but more is required before one can publish a calendar. The truth of the matter is that the Bible neither outlines a calendar nor provides enough “clues” or “hints” to answer all the questions that are necessary for producing a calendar.

The above paragraph is an outright lie!

There is no single calendar clearly defined in Scripture, [Nonsense!  that is totally false!] but Scripture does confirm the existence of a calendar or calendars during different time periods. Based on the reference to days of a month, Noah must have known of a calendar (Genesis 7:11). Moses had knowledge of a calendar (Exodus 12:2), and there was a calendar in place when the Jews returned from exile (Nehemiah 8:2) and during the Second Temple period (515 B.C. to A.D. 70), which included the time of Jesus Christ’s earthly ministry. Historically, however, there is no clear proof that one single calendar existed from the time of Noah to Christ, approximately 2,300 years.

The above is irrelevant nonsense to create confusion in the minds of the uninformed; the Bible clearly defines days, weeks, months and years:  That is a calendar.

The truth of the matter is that neither Scripture nor history provides enough information about the calendar in use at any one time to reconstruct a duplicate with an assurance of accuracy. Here are just a few of the questions that are not fully answered in Scripture, but are necessary for establishing a calendar with which to observe the holy days.

What is a “new moon”?

This is absolute rubbish, attempting to confuse the novice by defining the new moon as a modern astronomical term instead of stating the simple fact that the Biblical Calendar always started with the first light of the moon.  See Judaism 101 which explains the ancient and modern Calendars and their differences.

The Hebrew word chôdesh means “the first day of the month” or “the lunar month.”1 The context of the verse determines whether we are speaking of a month (full cycle of the moon) or only the first day of that month—referred to as the new moon or new month. There is no biblical definition given for the term “new moon.”

1 Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, 1906.

2 U.S. Naval Observatory website,

3 Colin J. Humphreys, The Mystery of the Last Supper: Reconstructing the Final Days of Jesus (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 45-47, emphasis added.

The following is totally irrelevant, thrown in to confuse people: the issue is not how some define the new moon;  The issue is how the  new moon begins in scripture, which is by its LIGHT, Gen 1.  

Some define the new moon as the “dark of the moon” (when the conjunction of the sun, moon and earth occurs) while others define it as the “first crescent” (the time when the crescent becomes visible after the conjunction). During each cycle of the moon, which consists of approximately 29½ days, there can be 30 hours or more of darkness after the conjunction before a crescent will be visible to the naked eye. The minimum amount of time ever recorded between the conjunction and the sighting of the crescent was 15.5 hours.2

Here is a quote from the British physicist and author Colin J. Humphreys confirming the 30 hours of darkness:

This is in reference to the astronomical conjunction and not to the biblical new moon.  It is totally irrelevant to the Calendar of the Bible.

It is important to understand that the new moon itself is invisible to the human eye, because it is lost in the glare from the sun. At new moon time, the moon, in its orbit around the earth, is between the earth and the sun. Astronomers call the moment when the moon, sun and earth are in a line ‘conjunction.’ At the time of conjunction the moon is completely invisible to the unaided eye, because the dark portion of the moon faces the earth. It is only after a certain length of time following conjunction, typically about thirty hours, that the first faintly glowing lunar crescent becomes visible. Two weeks after conjunction we have the full moon, when the moon is opposite the sun in the sky, rising at sunset and setting at sunrise. As the moon approaches conjunction, it is last seen, typically about thirty hours before conjunction, as a thin crescent in the morning sky. This is why there are two or three nights every lunar month when no moon can be seen at all between the disappearance of the ‘old moon’ in the morning sky and the reappearance of the ‘new moon’ in the evening sky. 3

This period of darkness is from the time the moon, sun and earth are in conjunction (also called the astronomical new moon); and there is no visible moon until the crescent first appears. This means that the new moon could be declared at any time between the disappearing of the final crescent prior to the conjunction and the appearance of the first crescent after the conjunction. Most calendars and almanacs list the time of the conjunction as the new moon. This can be easily calculated since it is an exact moment in time.

In reality, one should consider the new moon to be like the full moon—one of the phases of the moon that lasts for several hours and can carry over as many as three evenings, since the early crescent can only be seen in the evening just after sunset. The critical question—if you are developing a calendar based on the sun and moon—is, “Which day during this period of time should be proclaimed as the official new moon?”

God commands that the first visible LIGTY is the New moon and the beginning of a month, Gen 1:14; and later God placed his name in Jerusalem and commanded that all people look to him in Jerusalem

When does the month begin?

Again this is nonsense to confuse the novice, presenting the false from scripture as true.  The Biblical Calendar begins in the spring Ex 12:2 and is NOT based on the molad but on the first light of the new moon.  Here they explain the scripturally apostate Rabbinic calendar and their calendar clearly departs from the scriptures.  Will we obey God or Christ cursing Rabbins?

The months in the Hebrew calendar are established based upon what is called the molad and, more specifically, the molad of Tishri (the first month of the Jewish civil calendar, which is the seventh month of the Jewish religious calendar). The term molad is difficult to define, but it generally means “birth.” The molad is related to what astronomers call the conjunction, but it is not the same. While the molad is ambiguous and nowhere clearly defined, the conjunction (or astronomical new moon) is that precise moment in the moon’s cycle when the earth, moon and sun line up with each other and it is impossible to see any illumination of the moon from the earth.

The Hebrew calendar arrives at the timing of the molad by using the arithmetic mean (average amount) of time from one conjunction of the moon to the next, rather than the actual conjunction. Since the orbit of the moon around the earth is elliptical, the amount of time it takes to complete one full cycle varies. Notice this quote from the NASA Astrophysics Data System:

As is well known, the mean length of a lunation is a little more than 29.5 days (more accurately, 29.5306 days). However, the actual length of a lunar month can vary considerably about this mean from one lunation to another. … The length of a lunation—i.e., the interval between two successive conjunctions in longitude of the Moon and the Sun—is controlled by a variety of factors.4

4 F. Richard Stephenson and Liu Baolin, “On the Length fo the Synodic Month,” The Observatory, NASA Astrophysics Data System, February 1991, found online at…111…21S.

5 Congregation Shir Hadash,

The accepted lunar cycle, as used in the Hebrew calendar, is 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes and 3.33 seconds.5 The molad as a calculation is regular and predictable even though the actual time between conjunctions is not always the same. Therefore, by settling on this definition, the issue of establishing the first day of the month for the Hebrew calendar is resolved. The Hebrew calendar is not based on observation. One should keep in mind that there is no scripture that demands observation, nor is there any scripture that forbids calculation.

When does the year begin?

The scriptures tell us precisely when the year begins.  The  new year begins at the same season [spring] when Israel left Egypt and later the Wave Offering was commanded on the first Sunday during the Week of Unleavened Bread in that same season when Israel left Egypt; when there will be enough grain to harvest for the Wave Offering on the first Sunday in the Feast of ULB. 

For this reason we examine the coming harvest in Judea when the 12th month of the year is close to an end.  If for some reason the harvest could not be examined then the new moon closest to the spring Equinox may be used so that the festivals may be kept in their seasons.  Gen 1:14.

While Scripture refers to the first month of the year in Exodus 12:2, it provides few clues as to exactly when this month begins. Exodus 13:4 and Deuteronomy 16:1 identify the Hebrew name of the first month as Abib, which literally means “green ears.” Combined with the requirement for the wave-sheaf offering during Unleavened Bread, this shows that the Passover and Days of Unleavened Bread occur in the spring of the year in the northern hemisphere. Spring, by definition, would be the time of the vernal equinox, which on the Gregorian calendar for the northern hemisphere would correspond to March 20-21. When the vernal equinox occurs in the northern hemisphere, it is autumn in the southern hemisphere.

The conclusion some reach from the meaning of the Hebrew word abib is that we should look for a month when the barley starts to be green in the ear to determine the timing for the beginning of a year. If you arrive at a new moon and there are no green ears or heads among the barley crop, then, some suggest, you must delay the beginning of the month. However, there is no scripture that provides any such command.

NONSENCE AGAIN; Moses was told that he was to begin the year at the same time that Christ told him  the year began, at the season that Israel left Egypt!  Nowhere in scripture does it say that a year is precisely twelve months.  The new year must begin with the first light of the moon at the same time when the grain is ripening, and at the same time [season] Israel left Egypt; when Christ told Moses to begin the year.

Those who believe the new moon is determined by spotting a crescent in the sky must wait and make sure the ears are green before they can declare the beginning of the month. Of course, none of this is found in the Bible. 

This is an outright lie.  Jesus Christ clearly told Moses when to begin the months [by the LIGHT of the moon] and when to begin the year [by the ripening of the spring harvest essential for the Wave Offering]

More absolute nonsense.  This is clearly commanded in the Bible;  This is either massive scriptural ignorance or outright falsehood.

Some who have developed their own calendars [This is another lie, we have not developed our own calendar; we stand on the calendar clearly revealed in the scriptures and confirmed (like the weekly Sabbath) by Jesus Christ during his ministry] send individuals out into the barley fields in Palestine every spring, looking for green ears of barley. And, as soon as they are spotted, the word goes out by telephone and email. Today we live in a world of “instant communication,” but this type of communication would have been impossible for people living around the world a few centuries ago. How would you inform members living in South America in the 1700s as to when the year began? How were they supposed to know that the barley was green in Palestine, without the benefit of telephones and modern methods of communication?

Again this false issue of observation versus calculation is sneaked in.  The new year can be easily calculated years in advance and the observation is to confirm the calculations.  For example I have posted the High Days  from 2011 to 2020 here at this site.  These people are trying their best to deceive and make God’s way look difficult; to avoid keeping the word of God and to justify doing whatever they think is right instead of keeping God’s word. 

So when is the first “new moon” or beginning of the first month of the year? To establish a calendar that is based on both the sun and the moon (lunisolar) requires answers to both of these questions: When does the year begin? And what constitutes the first new moon of the year?

A nonsense straw man question.  We are to obey God and his word; and the Biblical Calendar is  lunar for months and solar for years, one rotation for days and seven rotations for weeks.  It is just that simple.  These superficial nonsense questions are meant to mock God’s word and those who keep it; but in reality they just make these men look foolish. 

God’s biblical Calendar is really very simple;  Just count out 12 months and as we come close to the end of the 12 month; if the crops are not beginning to ripen; add another month to keep the Festivals in line with the season when Christ told Moses to begin the year.  If the harvest cannot be observed then choose the new moon closest to the equinox [Gen 1 seasons] to start the new year.

What type of calendar should we use—solar or lunar or both?

The Hebrew calendar is based on both the sun and the moon, but most calendars use one or the other, since combining these two creates a higher level of complexity. Our modern Western calendar—the Gregorian calendar—is a solar calendar, while the modern Muslim calendar is a lunar calendar. Each of these calendars focuses on only one—either the sun or the moon—for its calculations.

We are to obey God and his word; and the Biblical calendar is  lunar for months and solar for years, one rotation for days and seven rotations for weeks.  It is just that simple. 

The Bible shows the use of both the sun and moon in determining time (Genesis 1:14). Based on the average of 29½ days per lunar month, 12 lunar months that alternate between 29 and 30 days will produce a year of 354 days. However, a solar year (the time required for the earth to complete a revolution around the sun) is 365¼ days. If you plan to use both the sun and the moon, how do you resolve this 11-day difference between a solar year of 12 months and a lunar year of 12 months?

The scripture plainly says that we are to begin the year when the barley is ripening for the Wave Offering, at the season that Israel left Egypt.  There is NO place in the scriptures that declares a year must have 12 months!   Which is almost always by the new moon closest to the spring equinox.

What does the following have to do with rejecting the Biblical Calendar ,which does compensate for the solar year and the spring harvest season?

If the difference isn’t accounted for, your lunar calendar will, over time, not be in sync with the seasons. This is the case with the Muslim calendar, where dates rotate through all four seasons over time.

“For seasons, days and years”

Here they admit that Gen 1:14 refers to the High Days, yet they reject the Biblical references to the light of the sun and moon in favor of the molads of darkness. 

Biblical references to the calendar are scarce and not sufficient to answer all the questions that are important for establishing calendar principles.

That is an outright lie!

We refer to these scriptures as “having calendar consequences,” since none of them defines a calendar for us. We find examples of such scriptures in Moses’ writings.

Genesis 1:14-16 states: “Then God said, ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years; and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth’; and it was so. Then God made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night. He made the stars also.”

Here they admit that the LIGHT of the moon is to be used to set the festivals, and then they refuse to do so by relying on the apostate Rabbinic Calendar based on average conjunctions when there is NO light.  They quote and then somehow cannot understand the meaning of what they quote, refusing to obey scripture and obeying false teachers instead!

There are two great lights in the heavens—the sun and the moon. We know, of course, that the moon is reflecting light from the sun and not the source of that light. The statement is clear that the “two great lights” are for the purpose of establishing “seasons, and for days and years.” The Hebrew word mo’ed (plural mo’adim) translated “seasons” is interesting, in that it is never used for climatic seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter), but is used for special appointed times. Here is what Adam Clarke says about this expression “for … seasons”:

For the determination of the times on which the sacred festivals should be held. In this sense the word frequently occurs; and it was right that at the very opening of his revelation God should inform man that there were certain festivals which should be annually celebrated to his glory. Some think we should understand the original word as signifying months, for which purpose we know the moon essentially serves through all the revolutions of time.6

6 Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible.

Some believe that Genesis 1:14 is more general, rather than having a specific reference to the holy days, since there is no clear biblical evidence of festival observance prior to the Flood. But it is also true that this word mo’ed is the primary word used for the festivals in the book of Leviticus, which Moses also wrote.

Notice Leviticus 23:2: “Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: ‘The feasts of the LORD, which you shall proclaim to be holy convocations, these are My feasts’” (emphasis added).

The Hebrew word for “feasts” in this passage is the same mo’ed as in Genesis 1. It is sometimes translated “congregation,” but is also translated “feasts” and “appointed,” especially in the books of Exodus and Leviticus in reference to the holy days. There is a connection with the sun and moon and the establishment of the “appointed times” for the feasts. What is that connection? We depend on the moon and the sun to provide the basis for a year, seasons of the year and also the structure and length of time within each year. In order to have a lunisolar calendar, it is necessary to coordinate both the revolution of the earth around the sun and revolution of the moon around the earth.

There is no complete calendar in the Bible

The Bible is written:  “here a little and there a little.”  Sadly these men who claim decades in the faith, cannot see what is right in front of them.  Of course there is a complete Biblical calendar in the scriptures, and it was confirmed by Jesus Christ who used that same calendar with the people in his day; over 350 years before the modern Rabbinic calendar began!

The Bible offers little information on how these questions should be resolved. 

They repeat this outright falsehood over an dover in the hope that they can justify they departure from the word of God! 

Upon consideration, it is obvious that without clear biblical instruction addressing these issues, There are clear Biblical instructions and we ought never make up a calendar of our own as the Rabbins did and as the COG Groups follows.  one is unable to publish a calendar of his own and declare it to be the one and only “biblical calendar.” Some will respond to that by saying we have “hints” or “clues” in the Bible

What is this denigrating a clear Biblical Calendar to “Hints”?   NOT ME; There are no hints in scripture; the scripture reveals clearly a complete Biblical calendar

or that the answer is hidden in the meaning of Hebrew words—chôdesh, for example. But there is not sufficient information to establish an alternative to the Hebrew calendar.

Again they end with an outright false statement in the following para as a lead in, to justify following the traditions of the apostate Rabbins!

With only a few general references about calendars found in Scripture, we are left with Jewish history as a primary source for understanding the current Hebrew calendar (also popularly known as the Jewish calendar).

What Does History Tell Us About the Hebrew Calendar?

 Just as Scripture provides only scant information, the historical accounts of the calendar are also limited. 

That is another lie, an outright false statement; the History of the Biblical and Jewish Rabbinical calendar is very well known and well established; as well as the simple fact that the Biblical calendar is clearly revealed in scripture itself and was observed in Judea until well after the Roman wars.

Although there is no explanation as to why, it is a matter of historical record that the rules for determining the calendar were kept secret until revealed by Hillel II in A.D. 358/359 (the Jewish civil year runs from fall to fall, thus overlapping two years on the Julian calendar, which was in use at the time). Since this set of rules was a closely guarded secret,

This is another false statement; the Rabbinic Calendar was NOT the calendar in use during and before the time of Christ;  and was not established until 1178 A.D. and was only proposed at the command of the Roman emperor by the Sanhedrin of 358 A.D.  

Following that 358 A.D. the NEW calendar system  was kept secret to avoid challenges from people standing on the scriptures, but their calendar did not exist in Judaism even as a proposal before 358 AD.  They simply told the people after that time when the festivals were according to the NEW system and kept its totally unbiblical methods secret.

They willfully reject well established history by claiming that anyone that tells the truth is to be questioned.  There is an enormous amount of historical information the subject.

anyone who writes dogmatically on the subject must be questioned. That doesn’t mean we can’t know anything, but to know the specifics is beyond our ability without the discovery of some new historical material.

Since it is the authors who are writing dogmatically on the subject and contrary to both scripture and well known history; and it is the Bible which dogmatically states its own calendar; it is the COGWA paper that must be questioned; by your own statement.

The following sources all support the fact that the calendar months were set by the first light of the new moon until well after 358 AD.  They confirm that the calendar used by Christ was by the first light and not by the conjunctions like the modern Rabbinic calendar. 

How they can publish this truth and then reject it, for the modern Rabbinic calendar; is a lesson on self justification and rebellion against the word of God to cleave to one’s own false traditions.

According to the Mishnah and Tosefta, in the Maccabean, Herodian, and Mishnaic periods, new months were determined by the sighting of a new crescent, with two eye witnesses required to testify to the Sanhedrin to having seen the new lunar crescent at sunset

There are several sources that one can go to and obtain historical information. The Talmud and the Mishnah are two of these sources. The Mishnah contains the oral instructions written and preserved by the Jews and was compiled around A.D. 200. The Talmud is the written commentary on the Mishnah and was completed between A.D. 200 and 600. One must be careful in using the Mishnah or the Talmud in determining the historical record. These documents are written in the form of arguments and discussions rather than to explain actual historical events.

The following are other sources that can be used to establish the historical record (and were consulted in this paper):

The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia.

The Comprehensive Hebrew Calendar by Arthur Spier.

Encyclopaedia Judaica.

Rabbinical Mathematics and Astronomy by W.M. Feldman.

The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ by Emil Schürer.

Saadia Gaon: His Life and Works by Henry Malter.

The Code of Maimonides translated by Solomon Gandz.

Understanding the Jewish Calendar by Rabbi Nathan Bushwick.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, “Calendar.”

Encyclopaedia Britannica online version, “The Calendar in Jewish History.”

Again this statement below is highly disingenuous.  To disagree on certain minor points, in no way means that there is a lack of information on the major points.  They ALL agree that the calendar was based on the first light of the new moon until the Hillel II calendar was first proposed to the Sanhedrin in 358 AD. 

The above sources agree on certain key issues, but there is a level of disagreement among some regarding the Hebrew calendar, its history and preservation.

ALL sources agree on the following facts:

1 The Rabbinic Calendar was not proposed in Judaism until 358 A.D.,  and was continually changed and updated until 1178 AD;

2  and that these updates were essential because of the internal errors in that Calendar, which have not been corrected since 1178, making today’s Rabbinic Calendar out of date and not accurate today.

3  That the  Biblical Calendar in use until well after 358 AD was based on the first visible light of the new moon; and that the modern Rabbinic Calendar defies the scriptures being based on the average time between the darkness of the conjunctions of the moon.

The Hebrew calendar was developed over time

Absolutely FALSE in connection to the Biblical Calendar!  How can one say that the Biblical Calendar written at the inspiration of God and which is a part of Holy Scripture; used from Moses to well after Jesus Christ is something that just developed?

It is the modern Rabbinic calendar used by the COG Groups which is NOT biblical and has developed over time. 

The Hillel II calendar was proposed to the Sanhedrin in 358-359 AD and was continually adjusted until it was finalized by Moses Maimonides in 1178 AD.  That is the apostate calendar used by COGWA which has nothing to do with the Biblical Hebrew calendar.

There were never any changes or development of the calendar that God inspired Moses to make a part of Holy Scripture.

A point that scholars agree on is that the current Hebrew calendar [by that he means the apostate Rabbinic calendar used by COGWA, UCG, LCG etc etc, not the Biblical Calendar]  has been adjusted down through the years. The idea that Hillel II constructed the final form of the calendar is an open question. His calendar is never mentioned in the Talmud. Evidence points out that the calendar passed through a developing series of forms and assumed its final shape in the school of official representatives of Judaism around the seventh and eighth centuries.

It was the Hillel II calendar used by COGWA etc that has developed over time; NOT the Biblical Calendar which is the same today as when it was written by Moses.

7 Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, “Calendar.”

The truth of the matter is that no one knows when the Hebrew calendar [This is well known from Jewish sources] reached its final form.

Nonsense, the history is clear that the Rabbinic calendar was finalized in 1178 by Moses Maimonides. Again the Biblical Calendar was recorded  by Moses and has NOT changed or “developed”. 

It is the Hillel II calendar which has changed and developed [remember that the COGWA authors had said that men should NOT devise and develop their own calendar!  But that is exactly what the Rabbins did, and is what COGWA is trying to justify following contrary to scripture today! 

This paper is so contradictory it is amazing.

They actually admit that Moses Maimonides finalized the Rabbinic calendar in 1178 AD; proving that it was NOT the calendar of the Bible or the calendar used in the days of Christ!  While trying to justify using the man made Rabbinic Calendar they are continually proving that it is wrong!

Scholars disagree on the date when the calendar was complete. In the 12th centuriy we do have one of the most famous rabbis, Maimonides, confirming the calendar as we know it today.

Be very careful below.   The repentant Jews who returned to Judea kept the Biblical calendar; even if a few of the Chaldean names of months were used, that does not in any way mean a change in the calendar. 

Remember that it was Ezra and Nehemiah who presided over a great revival of living by every word of God and used the calendar of the scriptures that was in use at the time of Christ and until well after the destruction of Mosaic Phariseeism in the Roman wars.  The modern Rabbinic is the Babylonian calendar with certain changes for the festivals and was not even begun until at least the fourth century AD.

After the Jews returned from captivity in Babylon (sixth century B.C.), several changes were noted, including changes in the calendar itself.  That is completely false, only a few names changed and there were no changes in the calendar itself.  From this time forward, the calendar employed Chaldean names for several months of the year.

The names for the Jewish months as now known come from the period following the return from Babylonia to Palestine. Before the Babylonian exile at least four

Ziv (, ), Ethanim (), and Bul (). After the Captivity, they were renamed Nisan, lyyar, Tishri, and Heshvan.

More falsehoods!  The scriptural ignorance is appalling!   It is the LIGHT of the moon that sets the month Gen 1:14 therefore the LIGHT must be seen to know that the new month has begun. By the mouth of two or three witnesses.  Since the moon has a 29 1/2 day orbit if one cannot see the new moon at sunset on the 29th day then day 31 becomes new moon automatically!

Nonsense below!  The rules for the Sanhedrin and the first light calendar are well known and I list them further below.

Whatever the rules used by the Sanhedrin for their calculations, those rules are unknown to us today. But the key is that the rules were set by the Sanhedrin. There are no rules in Scripture that said the calendar was to be set by observation. There are no rules in Scripture that tell you what to do when it is cloudy. There are no rules in Scripture that require two or three witnesses for the calendar. This isn’t even discussed in the Bible. The truth is that the Sanhedrin set these rules, chose the witnesses, occasionally paid the witnesses, and then calculated the dates for the holy days and announced them from the temple to all the Jews in Palestine.

Again nonsense;  The first light can be calculated whoever there are also no rules in scripture that the calendar is to be set strictly by calculations since such things as cloud cover cannot be factored into any calculation! 

It was the moon and the sun, the lights in the sky; which determined the calendar according to scripture.  The Sanhedrin was established as a court for the Jews to confirm that these things were actually seen; they had NO authority to change from the scriptures!  That is the same as the primacy of Peter abomination of Catholicism and the Babylonian Mysteries!  If they had authority to change the scriptures why does COGWA not observe Pentecost according to Rabbinic Judaism?

The important point is that the Sanhedrin and its calendar committee, like Jewish religious leaders during the Second Temple period, did have the authority to maintain the Hebrew calendar. They did just that, and they alone had the authority to make any adjustments  [They had ABSOLUTELY NO authority to change from the scriptures; and their authority stopped when Jesus Christ became our High Priest replacing Mosaic Judaism! The authority of the Pharisees or the Mosaic priesthood ended with the death of the Husband of Israel Jesus Christ! Who was resurrected and replaced them!] that might have been necessary.

The Sanhedrin continued to control the calendar after the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. 

False again!  the Sanhedrin NEVER had control over the Calendar; they only had the responsibility to proclaim what was proved according to the word of God.  All authority from God the Father had passed from the Rabbins to Jesus Christ at the resurrection of Christ as our new High Priest; and in any case, no person or group has the authority to change the scriptures!  

Historian Paul Johnson writes of a significant event that took place at that time:

The below is absolute nonsense.  It was Ezra who canonized the scriptures; and the apostles at Pella the New Testament.

This is just the tradition of some and is not historical fact and in any case refers to the biblical system and not to the Hillel II system which was first proposed in 358 A.D.  Ultimately the Mosaic Pharisees of Judea were wiped out by the Romans and the Hellenized Babylonian Pharisees took over and created Rabbinic Calendar over a thousand years of development.

Tradition [this is now tradition and rumor and was never a recorded fact] says that the Pharisaic rabbi, Johanan ben Zakkai, the deputy head of the Sanhedrin, was smuggled out of besieged Jerusalem in a coffin. … He obtained permission from the Roman authorities to set up a centre for the regulation of the Jewish religion at Jabneh (Jamnia), near the coast west of Jerusalem. … The rabbi and the synagogue became the normative institutions of Judaism, which from now on was a congregationalist faith. The academy at Jabneh made the annual calculations of the Jewish calendar. It completed the canonization of the Bible.10

10 Paul Johnson, History of the Jews (New York,: Harper & Row, 1987), p. 149.

The Sanhedrin’s calendar system continued to work well until the fourth century, when the Romans threatened the Jews with persecution if they continued to maintain the Sanhedrin, which at that time was meeting in an area outside of Jerusalem. Essentially the Romans were scattering the Jews, which would make it extremely difficult for them to get the information needed to observe the holy days. Because of this dilemma, by the fourth century, the Jews had gone to a system of keeping two days for the Feast of Trumpets (and for the other holy days, with the exception of the Day of Atonement) just in case they didn’t receive the announcement of the new moon in time, which could be delayed for a day or more.

Two days were set aside from most ancient times so that if the new moon was not seen on the expected evening, the people would be ready to observe the Feast of Yom Teruah on the next day.  Later in the fifth century and contrary to scripture the Rabbins declared both days to be holy time and the Feast of Yom Teruah to be a two day Feast.

Hillel II reveals calendar secrets

Here they are trying to imply that the Hillel II rules were a simple publication of rules in effect for centuries before.  This is an outright FALSE implication!  Hillel II presented a NEW set of rules designed to satisfy the Roman emperor Constantius 2 who had commanded that the Jews depart from the Biblical Calendar and adopt a new calendar.

The previous set of rules  which are well known; had to do with how to confirm the actual siting of the moon; 

They sighted a first visible moon and then waited for 25/26 days and then began observation.  When the moon disappeared at the conjunction, they continued to observe night by night until the first light was seen.

Then the witnesses were confirmed by questioning until at least two had agreed, and the observation was known to be on the evening ending the 28th or 29th day from the previous new moon siting. 

Their calculations consisted of counting days; if someone claimed to have seen the moons light say on day 26 for example, his testimony was not accepted, being impossible.

If the moon was not seen by the evening ending the 29th day; the evening of the 30 day was declared the beginning of the month by default since no month can exceed 30 days due to the moon cycle of 29 1/2 days.

These calculations of the Biblical Calendar were simply the counting of the days of the moon cycle, from first light to first light, like counting the days of the weekly cycle and had absolutely nothing to do with calculating the average period between conjunctions adopted by the apostate Rabbins.

The rules of Hillel II were entirely different from the rules of the Biblical Calendar, since they cast aside this observation system, in favor of a set system based on the average time between conjunctions.

JEWISH ENCYLOPEDIA The history of the Jewish calendar may be divided into three periods—the Biblical, the Talmudic, and the post-Talmudic. The first [Biblical period up to well past 358 AD] rested purely on the observation of the sun and the moon.

Under the reign of Constantius (337-362) the persecutions of the Jews reached such a height that . . . the computation of the calendar [was] forbidden under pain of severe punishment” (excerpted from The Jewish Encyclopedia, “Calendar.”)

[Since the Rabbinic] Jews held that declaring the new month by observation of the new moon, and the new year by the arrival of spring, can only be done by the Sanhedrin.  In the time of Hillel II [4th century A. D.], the last President of the Sanhedrin, the Romans prohibited this practice. Hillel II therefore instituted his fixed calendar, [by Constantius who also forbade the Biblical Sabbath in his realm due to a hatred of all things he saw as “Jewish”]  thus in effect giving the Sanhedrin’s advance approval to the calendars of all future years.” (“The Jewish Calendar and Holidays (incl. Sabbath): The Jewish Calendar: Changing the Calendar,”

Maimonides and most other Jewish chronologers agree that the modern Jewish calendar is based upon the “mean [average] motions of the sun and moon, the true having been set aside.”  (Maimonides, Kiddusch Ha-hodesch, Tr. Mahler, Wein, 1889.)

This led to Hillel II publishing the secret rules of the [The rules of the NEW Rabbinic Calendar; NOT the previous Biblical calendar] calendar in about A.D. 359. Because of the secrecy that surrounded the calendar, no one knows with total accuracy how the calendar (or calendars) used in biblical times was determined. Arthur Spier, in his book The Comprehensive Hebrew Calendar: Its Structure, History and 100 Years of Corresponding Dates, says the following about Hillel II and the secrecy of the rules prior to the fourth century:

The paper’s authors carefully delete the following:

Arthur Spier tells us:  In the early times of our history . . . [the] beginnings of the months were determined by direct observation of the new moon. Then those beginnings of the months (Rosh Hodesh) were sanctified and announced by the Sanhedrin, the Supreme Court in Jerusalem, after witnesses had testified that they had seen the new crescent and after their testimony had been thoroughly examined, confirmed by calculation, and duly accepted. (The Comprehensive Hebrew Calendar, p.1).

Arthur Spier continues:  This method of observation and intercalation was in use throughout the period of the second temple (516 B.C.E. — 70 C.E.), and about three centuries after its destruction, as long as there was an independent Sanhedrin.

COGWA’s  truncated quote:

In the fourth century, however, when oppression and persecution threatened the continued existence of the Sanhedrin, the patriarch Hillel II took an extraordinary step to preserve the unity of Israel. In order to prevent the Jews scattered all over the surface of the earth from celebrating their New Moons, festivals and holidays at different times, he made public the system of calendar calculation which up to . . .

This is a disingenuous statement below;  the Biblical calendar is Lunisolar as is the apostate Rabbinic calendar:  They are BOTH lunisolar.  The issue is that the Biblical Calendar commanded in scripture and kept in the time of Christ is based on the first light of the new moon; while the Rabbinic is based on average times between conjunctions on which there is NO light at all, thus the Rabbinic calendar is HIGHLY INACCURATE compared to God commands in the scriptures.

There is no evidence (either biblical or historical) that the Hebrew calendar has ever been anything but a lunisolar calendar.

The Biblical Calendar IS lunisolar as is the Rabbinic Calendar; they are trying to deceitfully imply that only the Rabbinic Calendar is lunisolar, and falsely try to imply that the Biblical Calendar is not unisolar.  Watch out for these false half truths told to deceive!

The statement below is also a grotesque lie:   No one has the authority to change the word of God.  We are not to depart to the right or to the left but to keep the whole word of God without making any changes in it.  Not one Jot is to ever be changed in the whole word of God.

Jews had authority to make changes as necessary

Does history show us which calendar we should use today? Should we attempt to go back to the time of Moses? Do we even know enough about that calendar to reproduce it? What about the calendar of the Second Temple?  

I clearly answered these questions and revealed the Biblical calendar at the early part of this post.  If these folks had bothered to do even the most basic of honest biblical research they would know these things.  

We acknowledge that over time changes occurred with the calendar and the religious worship of the Jews. [beginning in 358 AD and lasting until 1178 A.D] We especially see this after their return from Babylon and prior to the destruction of the temple in A.D. 70.

What a monstrous LIE!  There was no change in the Biblical Calendar as observed from the time that it was recorded by Moses, until the Rabbins proposed changes in the fourth century AD!  Using a month name in a different language in no way even implies a change in the calendar!  Rather it shows a change in common language usage!

If I happened to say Juillet  in French instead of the English July; does that mean that I have changed the calendar?  Of course NOT!  That insinuation is ridiculous on its very face.

The Jews had the RESPONSIBILITY to preserve the scriptures and the Biblical calendar and instead they turned away from the word of God!  To do their own ways regarding the calendar!

How Accurate Is the Hebrew Calendar?

Again an attempt at deceit!  The Biblical First Light Calendar is far more accurate than the Rabbinic Calendar, which is now accepted as having fallen into error.   See Israel New Moon Society 

The Biblical Calendar commanded in scripture and kept in the time of Christ, is based on the first light of the new moon Gen 1:14; while the Rabbinic is based on the average time between conjunctions on which there is NO light at all, thus the Rabbinic calendar is  HIGHLY INACCURATE compared to what God commands in the scriptures.

They are focusing on the apostate Rabbinic calendar and comparing it with conjunctions; when God commanded to go by the LIGHT and NOT by the darkness of conjunctions! 

What does it matter if it is accurate by conjunctions [it is NOT by the way] when God tells us to go by the LIGHT?  

The accuracy of the Biblical Calendar according to the LIGHT as commanded by the Creator in Gen 1:14 is virtually absolute! 

They are claiming that the Rabbinic Calendar is astronomically accurate, based on the darkness of conjunctions when that is NOT the issue and it is not true! 

The Rabbinic Calendar is not only NOT accurate astronomically; it is not consistent with the word of God and is NOT accurate according to the way that God has commanded us to measure  time!  God has commanded us to use the LIGHT of the moon to begin our months; NOT the darkness of conjunctions! 

The answer is extremely accurate [False!]. In fact, it is considered by some [By only some?  What some?]  to be more accurate than either the Julian or Gregorian calendars that have been used for more than 2,000 years. Here is a pertinent quote from the website Judaism 101, under the article “The Jewish Calendar: A Closer Look”:

Notice the term “At one time”;  the Rabbinic calendar has strayed from accuracy today.

At one time, the accuracy of the Jewish calendar was proverbial. But how accurate is it really?

The average lunar month on the Jewish calendar is 29d [days] 12h [hours] 793p [parts]. The average lunar month as calculated by modern astronomers is 29d 12h 44m [minutes] 2.8s [seconds], that is, 29d 12h 792.84p. so the variation is less than two tenths of the smallest unit of measurement recognized by the system, about half of a second. That is quite remarkably accurate. Of course, those lost half-seconds do add up: within a century, you’re off by 10 minutes.

So they admit that from Maimonides who finalized the Rabbinic Calendar in 1178 AD to today the Rabbinic calendar is now off by at least 80 minutes or over an hour, from the average time between conjunctions.  While the Biblical First Light Calendar is off by nothing at all and is completely accurate to the first visible light of the new moon as seen from Jerusalem.

It was and is the Rabbinic Calendar first proposed by Hillel II and finalized in 1178 A.D. which is NOT accurate according to the reckoning of our Creator!

Who cares, even if the Rabbinic Calendar is accurate according to the average time between conjunctions, when the Creator told us to go by the light and NOT the conjunctions.  That is like someone saying we should buy a stove because it works well; when we were sent to buy a car!

Further the Rabbinic Calendar uses conjunctions when the Bible commands us to go by the light;  that means that in the majority of years the Rabbinic calendar is off from god’s commanded calendar by one to three days.

The following arguments are totally irrelevant for any converted person.  They are attempts to trap people with a multitude of words and clever arguments signifying nothing.  ONLY issue for a converted person is whether this is according to God’s word or not; and the Rabbinic calendar is NOT consistent with the word of God; while the Biblical Calendar contained in the word of God IS consistent with the word of God.

How well does the calendar correspond to the solar year? The rabbis recognized long ago that the calendar gains 1h 485p in every 19-year cycle, adding up to a day every 300 years or so. This was important to the rabbis in scheduling certain rituals that are based on the solar year rather than the lunar year. We can see this effect when we examine the dates of Rosh Hashanah over time.

They knew this and then they claimed it was accurate?  There is so much double talk here.

After saying over and over that no one can develop their own calendar, they admit that the calendar they use was developed outside the scriptures over centuries;  what a contradiction.

Rabbi Hillel II developed [advanced] the Jewish calendar in the Jewish year 4119. [This is Jewish apostate Christ cursing Rabbins, who departed from the Biblical Calendar of Jesus Christ to do as they thought was right; contrary to the word of God.] Using his calendar methods as described above, and artificially assuming that the Gregorian calendar we use today [it was not the Julian calendar was in use] was in effect at that time, the date of Rosh Hashanah ranged from August 29 to September 28 between the years 4100 and 4200 (the 42nd century). In the present Jewish century (the 58th), the dates of Rosh Hashanah range from September 5 to October 5, a gain of 6 or 7 days. This is considerably more accurate than the Julian calendar used by Christians in Rabbi Hillel’s time (which had to be corrected by 11 days a few centuries ago), but you can see that it is gaining some time.

However it is NOT consistent with the word of God!  So what if we can produce something contrary to God’s command that might possibly work.

The ONLY issue for a converted person is whether this is according to God’s word or not; and the Rabbinic calendar is NOT consistent with the word of God; while the Biblical Calendar contained in the word of God IS consistent with the word of God.

Again they admit that the Rabbinic Calendar is NOT accurate, contradicting their previous statement that it was accurate; while hiding the fact that the Biblical Calendar is absolutely accurate!

The discrepancy in the Jewish calendar, however, is still less than a lunar month and is therefore as accurate as it is possible to be in a lunisolar calendar. In fact, it takes about 9300 years for this discrepancy to accumulate to a full month of time. The rabbis were aware of the problem, but were quite confident.

What did God mean when He commanded Moses to “proclaim” His festivals? Moses was given the responsibility to summon or invite God’s people to keep those days.

100 (1800 and 1900 for example), Feb. 29 is not added to the calendar even though it would be if you were following the normal four-year cycle. But in centuries evenly divisible by 400, Feb. 29 is added and that year is declared to be a leap year. This was the case in the year 2000.

The calendar in use in the days of Christ was the Biblical Calendar inspired by Christ in the Holy Scriptures and NOT the apostate Rabbinic calendar foisted off on the Jews in 1178 A.D.!

We don’t have a listing of the rules that existed for the calendar during the time of Christ, [All you have to do is read your Bible, or see the list of basic rules below taken directly from the bible!] but what we do know is that the rules were developed within the Sanhedrin and used to establish the holy days. Christ never challenged the authority of the priests or the Sanhedrin in establishing these dates. They claimed their authority from the “seat” of Moses (Matthew 23:1-2).

Biblical Calendar rules:

1  The moon’s cycle is 29 1/2 days; therefore no month can be longer than 30 days.

2  About 25-26 days are counted from the previous visible light of the moon and the new observation begins.

3  After observing the darkening to the conjunction when no light can be seen; the first new light is then seen and reported.

4  When at least two witnesses report the sighting and are thoroughly questioned as to their certainty; the new month is proclaimed as sanctified.

5  In the extremely rare event of heavy cloud cover, the following calculations came into play:

A  If the previous month began at 29 days after its predecessor, then the existing month could last for 30 days to its end, and the new month would begin after the 30th day.

B  If the previous month began at 30 days after its predecessor, then the existing month could last for only 29 days to its end, and the new month would begin at the end of the 29th day.

There is no scripture that gives any indication how the intercalary cycle should be set, so the Jewish authorities had to make that decision. When and how it was made is simply unknown.

This is an absolute falsehood; they did as Christ commanded Moses and set the new year at the same time each year; when the spring harvest was ripening for the Wave Offering, at the season [time] that Israel went out of Egypt! This is well documented in history.  

The fact that adjustments have been made to the calendar should not concern us today.

I am horrified for these folks at this statement: If we are not concerned about falling away from the word of God, we shall most definitely be corrected by God.  they simply discard what they do not want to see;  that is willful blindness of enormous proportions.

The Hebrew calendar we use today (in its most basic form) has been around since the time of the Second Temple—and we know the Jews used calculations at that time. 

Again this is outright  lies!  The modern Rabbinic Calendar did not have its beginnings until at least the  fourth century A.D.  That FACT is abundantly clear in history!  These people know better than this, they are outright lying to us.

Hillel II departed from the Biblical Calendar and proposed a new and non biblical calendar.

It was revealed by [A NEW Rabbinic calendar was proposed 359 ad; this was a completely new way of reckoning time and was a radical departure from the Bible; It was in fact simply the Babylonian Calendar being proposed to replace God’s Scriptural Calendar.] Hillel in A.D. 359 and was adjusted  [the Hillel II calendar was continually corrected down to Moses Maimonides in 1178 A.D. and is now in need of more correction because of its error today.] when necessary in the years that followed, but only as long as there was a Sanhedrin or other legitimate body of Jews to make those adjustments.

What happened to their claim that the calendar was not to develop and was to never be changed?

It should be noted that there is no reliable historical evidence that the Church of God as a body has ever used anything but the Hebrew calendar when it came to the observance of the holy days.

Another false statement, see Col 2:16.  

The Biblical Calendar was lost through the centuries.  Again this is a distraction and utter nonsense!  We are responsible to learn and grow and are not to follow the errors of our forefathers!

My mother in law once said; “you are correct about Christmas but I will keep observing it because my father did”.  Is that how low we have sunk that we cannot grow and we reject the promised later day increase in knowledge to follow the false traditions of our forefathers?

The first recorded controversy over the calendar among Church of God groups was in the 1930s and 1940s with C.O. Dodd, an elder from the Church of God (Seventh Day). It was at that time that Herbert Armstrong wrote a letter to the Church about the calendar. Here is a quote from that letter, written in the spring of 1940:

They prove their positions false and then rely on a decision of a man who lacked the information available today; instead of relying on the word of God.

Briefly, after very exhaustive study, and counsel with the brethren who also have made thorough study of the question for years, the facts are these: … Research reveals two basic points on this question (intercalary months), 1st, God did not record it in the Bible, which gives us absolutely nothing more to go on than I have stated above. 2nd, history is vague on the subject, shedding little light that can be accepted and trusted.

Both of the above are manifestly false, as much new information has ben revealed since the 1940’s!.

Yet we know God gave His people a fixed rule for calculating time periods, and for figuring when to hold the Festivals of Jehovah. … In conclusion, unless God has preserved His sacred calendar through the Jews, then we do not know how to figure Passover or any of the Holy Days this year. For there is no authority for any other way.

We are to follow the authority of scripture and not to follow any person contrary to scripture.  Yes God preserved his word; that does not mean that Rabbinic Judaism or anyone else has kept God’s word!

There is no Bible authority whatsoever for figuring the 1st day of the 1st month from the new moon nearest the spring equinox! … [No, we are to set the first month by the readiness of the harvest for the Wave Offering as the scripture plainly indicates.  The spring harvest sets the season for the new year; no harvest for the Wave Offering, no new year.  God’s ways are so simple.]  God did not commit His oracles, or the preservation of His times to profane history, or to the Roman Catholics, but to the Israelites. And they have been preserved by the Jews.

Yes, but they were NOT preserved by the Rabbinic Jews!

Exactly!  The scriptures have been preserved by the Jewish scribes, not the Rabbins, and it is the scriptures that we are to rely on:  Not Rabbinic departures from the scriptures! 

Did Jesus Christ rely on the Rabbins?  or did he rely on the scriptures?  Are we not to follow HIS example?

If you insist that the Rabbins must be obeyed on their calendar then you must also follow them on the Passover and Pentecost!  Otherwise you are double minded and inconsistent!

Now let me ask: To which sect of the Jews are we to look for our calendar?  Do you not know that the Karaites are the sect of the Jews which hold to the Mosaic scriptures and are sitting in Moses seat as far as Judaism is Mosaic today?

The Rabbinic calendar is NOT the only Jewish calendar!  If you are correct and we should follow the Jews and not God’s word; why do you not follow the calendar of the Karaite Jews who are the only Jewish sect which is faithful to the scriptures? 

Karaite Judaism Q&A

Why do you stand on the false unbiblical Rabbinic Calendar and NOT on the correct Jewish Calendar of the Karaite sect of Judaism?  After all the Karaites are Jews and they are by far the closest to the Holy Scriptures of the Old Testament.  And they stand on and keep  the Biblical Calendar of Moses!

And tell me true:  How can you say that there is NO Biblical Calendar when the Biblical Calendar is out there alive and in use by a major Jewish faction?

This paper is full of falsehood meant to justify following apostates and false teachers  away from the word of God!

If you must use a Jewish calendar follow the Karaite Jewish calendar which is a close to the Biblical calendar as can be; instead of following the obviously false and nonbiblical Rabbinic Calendar!

Historically, whenever there is evidence of the Church observing the holy days, it is always according to the Hebrew (or Jewish) calendar.

Another falsehood;  the calendar used by the Jewish Scribes was the Biblical Calendar until at least the  fourth century AD. the Rabbinic Calendar did not even begin as an idea until the fourth century AD,

From a practical standpoint, how would a Christian in, let’s say, the 14th century, know when to observe the holy days?

Obviously by going to the Holy Scriptures and keeping the word of God instead of relying on a pagan system apostate from scripture.

Based on all the records we can locate,

Of course their are NO such COG records detailing calendar or Festival dates older than 1800 AD; so this is a deceitful statement.  After this deceit they throw in their false self justifying assumption. 

This is another outright false assumption claiming that people would not have gone by the scriptures in the past, and so claiming that we should not do so now.

Christians would have used the Hebrew calendar as preserved by and used by the Jews of that day. There is no reliable evidence of anything else being used. 

Actually this is a nonsensical assumption as each one of us is to obey Christ regardless of what any others do.  It is totally irrelevant what others may do; we are responsible for WHAT WE DO!  And we were promised by the word of God, that knowledge would INCREASE at the end time, Dan 12!

The Rabbins did NOT copy or preserve the scriptures, they added their own reasoning’s to the scriptures and then claimed their reasoning’s had more authority than the scriptures, as well as reasoning around scripture to do as they liked and make the word of God of no effect!  

Only the Karaites who are Jews and faithful to the letter of Moses; keep the Biblical Calendar, as many in the COG Groups are beginning to do.

Why do these men stoop to egregious falsehood, to justify following men contrary to the word of God?

 Calculation or Observation?

This sub title is intriguing since the subject has nothing to do with calculation, nor does it disprove observation.  Further the issue has never been about calculation versus observation; because the Biblical Calendar was easily calculated and then confirmed by observation!  

To prove that the calendar of the scriptures can be easily calculated and then confirmed by actual observation I would like to present the calculated first light of the new moons up to 2021. 

These calculations take into account when the first light may be seen including sunset moonset times and percentage of illumination.  Please bookmark this schedule for your convenience. All one needed to do was count the number of days between two visible new moons of the previous month.  If the previous month was 29 days then the new month would in almost all circumstances would have 30 days; and if the last month has 29 days, then the new month would have 30 days.  Observation was then used to confirm this in case of the rare occasion when there were two consecutive 29 or 30 day months.

The Rabbinic calculated calendar followed by these folks is very different, as it ignores the commanded LIGHT of the new moons altogether; and in defiance of scripture goes by an artificial imaginary average tome between the darkness of the conjunctions, which is not only unbiblical but is now inaccurate.

When reading the Scriptures, we realize the phrase or phrases “to view,” “to observe,” “to see,” “to spot,” or (be it said any other way) to look at (with the eyes) a visible crescent (in order to declare a new month) are not found in the Bible. The Scriptures nowhere command us to view or observe a new crescent to establish the beginning of a month.

This may be true, but it is a false statement in spirit; since we are commanded to use the LIGHT of the moon to set the seasons and Festivals, and since the Festivals are set on certain days of the month; the LIGHT of the moon is commanded to be used to set the months, Gen 1:14.  Now how can we use the LIGHT if we do not see it? 

Obviously,  even if we can calculate when the light would appear, we should confirm that whenever possible by looking for and seeing the LIGHT to set the beginning of the months according to scripture.

God’s inspired Word nowhere commands believers that observing a visible crescent is the proper method for deciding the first day of a month [This is an outright LIE!]. Yet there are several calendars proposed by individuals that rely either totally on such observation or in combination with some form of calculation. Their answer is that this is the way it was done during the time of Christ. Is that true and, even if it were true, is this the way it was done during the time of the First Temple? Where does the Bible give such instructions?

We notice the following from the Scriptures:

Actually the Biblical Calendar existed from creation Gen 1:14 and was re-given to Moses after they had lost knowledge during their period of slavery in Egypt. And yes the command to look for and see the light is absolutely implied by the command to set the months by the LIGHT of the new moon.

• A calendar of some sort existed from the time of Noah, and it is clear that Israel had a calendar from the time they left Egypt. (See Genesis 7:11 and Leviticus 23.)

• God identified the month of the Exodus as the first month of the year. (See Exodus 12:1-2 and 13:4.) This was in the spring of the year around the time of the spring equinox in the areas of Egypt and Palestine.

• One example of using a calendar is found in Nehemiah 7:73–8:1: “When the seventh month came, the children of Israel were in their cities. Now all the people gathered together as one man in the open square that was in front of the Water Gate; and they told Ezra the scribe to bring the Book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded Israel.” How did they know this was the first day of the seventh month?

This is rubbish, anyone can quote a verse not referring to the new moon and then claim that because it does not reference the moon the Bible does not say the High Day is set by the first visible light of the moon!  There are many other scriptures that do say that the months begin with the first light of the new moon as these posts reveal.  This is complete moral dishonesty.

 Notice Nehemiah 8:9: “And Nehemiah, who was the governor, Ezra the priest and scribe, and the Levites who taught the people said to all the people, ‘This day is holy to the LORD your God; do not mourn nor weep.’ For all the people wept, when they heard the words of the Law.” Is this evidence of a calculated calendar prior to the time of Christ? And what was it based on if the knowledge of the holy days had been lost, as some claim? Where is the evidence in this example of “observing” or “looking for” the crescent of the moon?

Establishing intercalary years

This is again a  falsehood.  We are commanded to begin the year AT THE SAME  SEASON;  EVERY YEAR!  That command requires the use of an intercalary month every few years to begin the new year in the same season as Israel went out of Egypt.  Nowhere does the Bible say that a year must have a set number of months, rather we are commanded to begin each year at the same season that God led Israel out of Egypt, and later we are commanded to offer a Wave Offering in the first Sunday after Passover,  By necessity the harvest must be ripening to obey these two commands.

Nothing is stated directly in the Old Testament about intercalation (the adding of a 13th month to the lunar year to keep the seasons intact). Some consider the number of days in the first eight chapters of Ezekiel as an indication of a thirteenth month, but there are several questions to be answered and several assumptions that must be made to arrive at this conclusion. When the calendar is based on both the sun and the moon, a 13th month is necessary about every three years (seven times in a 19-year cycle) to keep the months in alignment. As with the other calendar rules, how this was determined isn’t clearly found in Scripture.

This is completely false as I showed by the two commands above.  Moses was commanded to begin the year at the season that God led Israel out of Egypt, therefore if the twelfth month ended before that time, then an intercalary month was added.

Some of the sources make the claim that during the Second Temple period (515 B.C. to A.D. 70), the beginning of each month was set by observation and the intercalary year was determined by the ripeness of the barley. The second assertion seems unlikely since the decision to add a 13th month has astronomical ramifications outside of agricultural ones.

Again an utterly false statement attempting to confuse a simple matter.

It seems that there must have been established intercalary years during the Second Temple period. One thing that Hillel II revealed in A.D. 359 was apparently a method by which the years of intercalation could be determined in advance.

The following assumption is mind boggling.  They say that because Hillel II introduced a non biblical method of setting intercalary years in advance, it somehow means that the Biblical Calendar used up until the Hillel II calendar and up until today by non Rabbinic Jews, is not based on the harvest and season of the year.

This indicates that the calendar was not established based on the ripeness of the barley. The intercalary years as established by the Hebrew [read apostate Rabbinic setting the year by the equinox] calendar would always produce ripe barley in the field for the wave-sheaf offering during the Days of Unleavened Bread.

Of course calculations were used before Hillel as I have shown!  But they were based on different things!  They were based on the first visible LIGHT of the new moon and on the season when Israel went up out of Egypt.  The Hillel II calendar is not based on the scriptures and is acknowledged by the Rabbins as being non biblical!

Several sources confirm that calculations were used prior to Hillel II.

Of course calculations were used for centuries before Hillel II:  But they were NOT the same calculations based on the same premise’s.

From the website we find evidence that calculations were known and used for intercalary years. The following quote about Shmuel, who was born about A.D. 165, also confirms that Hillel II “revealed” the calendar rules rather than creating a calendar with its rules:

This does no such thing!  The calendar was calculated and sent to the dispersion BASED on the scriptures and the First LIGHT of the moon which is easily calculated: and in Judea was confirmed by physical observation of the first light.

This in NO WAY supports the clearly false assumption that the 1178 Maimonides conjunction calculations, based on the darkness of conjunctions; and with its contrary to scripture rules was the same calculations in use during the Temple period.

They are mixing up of two different sets of calculations based on two different foundations according ot two separate systems of rules, in an attempt to confuse and deceive people.

Shmuel and many others since the days of Moses were able to calculate the appearance of the First Light of the new moon at Jerusalem Biblical Calendar years ahead to use on trips like Solomon’s fleet.  That in no way means that they departed from the commanded LIGHT of the moon into the darkness of the modern apostate Rabbinic calendar with its many anti biblical rules.

Shmuel said, “I am able to establish [calculate] the proper date of Rosh Chôdesh for the entire Diaspora.” Shmuel was born about 165 C.E. (Common Era) at Nehardea, in Babylonia and died there about 257 C.E. Shmuel died 100 years before the assumed creation of the Hebrew Calendar by Hillel II.17

17 Richard Fiedler,

18 W.M. Feldman, Rabbinical Mathematics and Astronomy (New York: Hermon Press, 1965), p. 123.

19 Feldman, p. 160.

20 Spier, p. 1.

The Biblical Calendar can be easily calculated well ahead of time; that in no way mans that the Hillel – Maimonides calendar was in use before 1178 A.D.. 

The following statement is pure fantasy and wishful thinking, it is false; the Rabbinic method of calculation by the molads was only proposed by Hillel 2 and ten  developed and was continually adjusted until 1178 A.D.  Meanwhile the true Biblical Calendar has been continually kept by the scribes and their families and preserved through the centuries by the Karaite Jews, who were often greatly persecuted by the Rabbins.

The calculated Hebrew calendar was not created by Hillel in A.D. 358/359. It was created by the rabbis many centuries [this is false] before but was to be used in secret.

The Biblical Calendar was never secret!  It was only the Rabbinic perversion that began in the third century that was kept secret [because it would have caused an uproar for its departure from the scriptures] and was not published until the general mood and conditions were right for the open apostasy from the Biblical Calendar.

Early evidence of a calculated calendar

Again this is an attempt to confuse people with the false claim that the calculated Biblical calendar was the calculated rabbinic calendar; when these two calendars, both able to be calculated, were entirely different systems based on two entirely different foundations.  The first LIGHT of the Biblical Calendar; or the darkness and anti Bible rules of the Rabbinic Calendar which were not even proposed until the third century AD and were not adopted officially by the Rabbins until 1178 AD.

From here on for several paragraphs they admit that everything I have said is true; then they attempt to confuse the calculations of the Biblical Calendar  based on the first light of the new moon; with the calculated rabbi9nic Calendar based on the average time between the darkness of conjunctions and its many anti scriptural rules.  

By confusing the two very different calculations, they try to say the lie that the Rabbinic Calendar was far more ancient then its known beginnings in the third century AD.  This is simple slight of hand or bait and switch deception.

Most historians agree that during the Second Temple period there were witnesses who watched for the early crescent and then reported to the calendar committee. But the following sources note that the committee confirmed their report by calculation.  [At last an admission of the truth, but they still attempt to confuse the calculations of the biblical calendar with the calculations of the Rabbinic Calendar.]

The Talmudic Rabbis [from about A.D. 200 to 500] recognized the variation in length of the synodic month [lunar month of 29½ days] … and hence they determined the beginning of every month separately by observation of the new moon as well as by calculation.  [Another admission of the truth.]

For as the beginning of a month was fixed on the accredited evidence of witnesses who reported having seen the new moon soon after sunset on a certain day, it was the duty of the Calendar Council not only to test their evidence by stringent cross-examination … but also to ascertain, by mathematical calculation, whether the moon could, in fact, be seen at that particular moment at the particular place from which the witnesses came.19  [This is another admission that what I have been saying is the truth]

Then those beginnings of months (Rosh Hodesh) were sanctified and announced by the Sanhedrin, the Supreme Court in Jerusalem, after witnesses testified that they had seen the new crescent and after their testimony had been thoroughly examined, confirmed by calculation and duly accepted.20

We see a general consensus among historians that calculations were known and used during the Second Temple period. It also seems obvious that a witness was not considered credible unless his testimony could be confirmed by calculation. So, even during the time of Christ, calculations were used as the final determinant for the beginning of the month. We also see evidence of intercalation during the Second Temple period.

These admissions agree completely with everything I have said, now comes the kicker;  they claim the calculations of the Biblical Calendar are the same as the calculations of the Rabbins:  Which is utterly FALSE!

They are two DIFFERENT systems!  The Biblical Calendar based on the commanded LIGHT of the moon and without any postponements or non biblical rules; and the Rabbinic calendar based on the molads [average conjunctions] and full of anti scripture rules and postponements and methods.

This tells us that all the elements of the modern calendar were in place during the Second Temple period.

No, it tells us that an easily calculated but very different Biblical calendar was in use well into the fifth century, before the modern Rabbinic Calendar began to take real hold on Rabbinic Judaism.

The Rabbinic calendar is based on darkness and not the commanded LIGHT; it begins in the autumn and not in the spring as God commanded, and it is full of anti scriptural rules not contained in the Biblical calendar!

How they were used, which rules were used and what effect the rules of postponement had on the calendar of that day are simply unknown and cannot be confirmed by history or by Scripture.

Because the postponements and anti biblical rules did not exist until at least 1178 A.D.!

There is no evidence from the First Temple period (1000 to 586 B.C.) of anyone looking for the new moon or of witnesses being employed.

These men seem to have forgotten the Psalms.  See the: “The New Moon in the Hebrew Bible” early in this post.

Is it possible that calculations were relied on during that time period and not observation? And is it possible that observation was only used briefly during the Second Temple period, but not before or afterwards?

Here they have then asking false questions to which we know the answers from scripture and history.  Yes the first light of the new moon was calculated and confirmed by observation by Israel throughout its history.  It was and is only the apostate Rabbins who teach and act contrary to the Biblical calendar. 

We have only to look at the Psalms which proclaim that the new moons were set for the beginning of months and the examples and prophecies of Ezekiel, Isaiah; or the various histories.  We Also know that Jesus Christ followed and accepted the Biblical then used by the Scribes and that the disciples also taught the gentiles to set the months by the new moons of the first light as is commanded in the scriptures.

We do know that astronomical calculations were in use after the Babylonian captivity and during the time of the Second Temple.

It is generally accepted that the Jewish festivals were, in Biblical times, fixed by observation of both the sun and the moon. Gradually, certain astronomical rules were also brought into requisition, primarily as a test, corroborating or refuting the testimony of observation.21 

Partly false, this implies that the Rabbinic calculations were the same as the Scribal First LIGHT calculations, and were gradually introduced. The two were entirely different sets of calculations; the calculations of the Biblical calendar existed since Moses [actually since creation], while the  Rabbinic Calendar calculation system was not finalized until 1178 A.D, and then was still not accepted by the Scribes and those associated with the Scribes.

Partly true, the ancients were not ignorant of astronomy and even Abraham was an learned astronomer.  The ability to calculate and add up to 29 and 30 was well known even in the days of Moses!  The Biblical First Light Calendar as revealed through Moses, was calculated and confirmed by observation in Israel from the time of Moses.

21 Henry Malter, Saadia Gaon: His Life and Works (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1921), Chapter IV, “Saadia’s Controversy With Ben Meir,” pp. 70-88.

There is evidence that claims that the Jews always used calculation as opposed to observation to set the calendar. 

Yes, Israel always used calculations to determine when to look for teh First Light and then confirmed the Light by observation; No, it is an outright false statement that Israel did not confirm calculations by observation before the false apostate Rabbinic Calendar was finalized in 1178 AD: And the first visible light of the new moon  is still confirmed by sight by those Jews who are faithful to the scriptures [the Karaites]

Calendar calculation in Jesus’ time

During the time of Christ, the Jewish religious leaders had developed an elaborate system for proclaiming the holy days. We see no evidence of this system in the Old Testament.

We do know from history that this system existed since at least the days of the Ezra revival.  Further this was not a matter of men deciding the calendar apart from scripture as the Rabbins do; it was a matter of proclaiming the first visible light of the new moon had come, according to the criteria laid down in the scriptures.  A simple example is that of a person seeing the sun rise and telling his household that the sun had risen.  He changed nothing; only proclaimed what he had seen.

Witnesses were sent out on the mountains around the city of Jerusalem to catch the first glimpse of the new crescent. They would then report back to the priests their findings. But history records that the priests checked their witnesses’ observations with “calculations.”

Calculation as to the times when the first light would be visible were based simply on how many days the previous month lasted.  Obviously this calculation could be extended into many years of 29 and 30 repeating monthly days.

An interesting question arises: If the calculations disagreed with the witness, what would the priests do?

The Biblical calculations never disagreed with honest witnesses!

Since the witnesses were being checked by the calculations, the calculations were really the final authority during the Second Temple period.

The calculations revealed when the old moon was ending and the proper time to seek to find and see the new moon.  The calculations and sightings complimented one another as two parts of the same system, like two witnesses to the same event. 

The development of witnesses was typical of the Jews during the time of the Second Temple. They added layer upon layer of bureaucracy to “protect” their religion. There is no mention in Scripture of any need for or even the existence of such witnesses. In fact, the priests in the temple could easily have done this sighting for themselves.

Only as long as two or more agreed on the actual sighting of the light of the  moon. You greatly err not understanding the scriptures:

Deu 19:15   One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established.

2 Cor 13:1   This is the third time I am coming to you. In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established.

Mat 18:16   But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established.

Further the calculations of the Biblical Calendar were simply:

Biblical calendar rules:

1  The moon’s cycle is 29 1/2 days; therefore no month can be longer than 30 days.

2  About 25-26 days are counted from the previous visible light of the moon and the new observation begins.

3  After observing the darkening to the conjunction when no light can be seen; the first new light is then seen and reported.

4  When at least two witnesses report the sighting and are thoroughly questioned as to their certainty; the new month is proclaimed as sanctified.

5  In the extremely rare event of heavy cloud cover, the following calculations came into play:

A  If the previous month began at 29 days after its predecessor, then the existing month could last for 30 days to its end, and the new month would begin after the 30th day.

B  If the previous month began at 30 days after its predecessor, then the existing month could last for only 29 days to its end, and the new month would begin at the end of the 29th day.

The Karaite controversy

In the late seventh century the Rabbins began to call the scribes Karaites:  Karaite is an Anglicized form of the Hebrew word Karaim or Bnei Mikra, which means “Followers of Scripture.

From early times the Babylonian Rabbins tried to take over Judaism and in the fourth to the eighth century became strong enough to establish their own anti scriptural calendar and to begin serious persecution of the Scribes who had preserved the scriptures; calling them disparagingly Karaites, meaning the followers of scripture as opposed to followers of the body of the Rabbinic  Talmud as having greater authority than the scriptures.

This is identical to what is happening in the church of God groups today, as they disparage anyone who has a zeal for the word of God, and does not acknowledge the decisions of church leaders as being of a greater authority than the word of God.

The following statement is back to front as it was the Rabbins who set up their own religion of human reason, while the Scribes [Karaites] remained loyal to the scriptures.

In the eighth century after Christ there was a great dispute with a group called the Karaites who set up their own religious group (which still exists to this day), separate from the main Jewish community.

This is another falsehood; the Scribes had existed since Moses and had preserved the scriptures;  it was the Rabbins who established their own apostate religion, and then attacked the scribes calling them Karaites.

The Karaites are said to be descended from the Sadducees, but this doesn’t seem likely. [No the Karaites came from  the scribes who preserved the scriptures]  They rejected the oral law—Mishnah and the Talmud—and only accepted the written  Torah. They rejected calculation for use with the calendar. 

This is false, they used the Biblical calculation above, and then confirmed them by observation; They rejected the false apostate Rabbinic departure from scripture, and the Karaites also rejected extra biblical teachings which were contrary to the scriptures and which the Rabbins falsely claimed were some sort of secret teachings of Moses, when in fact they were a radicle departure form Moses making the word of God of no effect by their false teachings!

Saadia Gaon (Gaon was a title given to the Jewish leaders at this time) defended the calendar by arguing that the calculations were given by God to Moses. While most scholars believe that Saadia overstated the case, one cannot overlook his argument. He was the most influential rabbi of his day.

Saadia Gaon was completely discredited and even Maimonides living in the twelfth century, who finalized the Rabbinic calendar in 1178 AD discredit him and his arguments [See yesterday’s post Part 1].  This is using the false witness of  thoroughly discredited arguments  in an attempt to confuse and deceive the unlearned. 

Rejecting the [modern Rabbinic] fixed calendar as a heretic innovation [which it was], the Karaites held that by law of Scripture the beginning of the months must be determined by the appearance of the new crescent and no other means, and that this had been the practice of ancient Israel at all times.

Here they call the truth an “extreme assertion”!

Rabbanite refutation of this extreme assertion found its most outspoken exponent in Saadia Gaon, who went to the opposite extreme in “demonstrating” that the fixed calendar, computation of molad and tekufah, has the force of a Mosaic-Sinaitic law that had been followed at all ages of the past, while observation of the new crescent was merely a passing episode in the history of the Jews, introduced at the time of the Sadducees.22

Saadia  was the Rabbinic leader in Babylon who worked to eclipse the Kariate Scribes and replace faithfulness to the scriptures, with Rabbinic Judaism which is apostate from the Old Testament. While proclaiming loyalty to the scriptures, they made the scriptures subject to their own teachings, omewhat similar to the Roman Catholicism of today.

A lie is a lie, whether it was told today or a thousand years ago. The false claim of Saadia that observation of the sighting of the New Moon was only introduced in the time of the Sadducees; despite being totally false; actually confirms that the Biblical Calendar used in the days of Christ was indeed the sighting of the visible new moon calendar and being confirmed by Christ’s use is appropriate for us today.

The true facts are that the anti Christ Rabbins changed the calendar and the dates of Passover and Pentecost deliberately and for the express purpose of fighting the new sect; the true followers of that sect of Judaism called Christian. The wanted to hide the fulfillment of scripture in the life of Christ.

22 The Code of Maimonides, Book II, Treatise 8.

23 “The Moon Almanac” website,

The following is simply irrelevant because God commands that the year begin in the spring.

The Hebrew term tekufah literally means “turn” or “cycle” and is considered a reference to the four seasons, the four times of “turning” during each year. It is used in four verses in the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament): Exodus 34:22; 1 Samuel 1:20; 2 Chronicles 24:23; and Psalm 19:6. One reference is to the time of giving birth (1 Samuel); another is to the “end of the year” when fighting took place (2 Chronicles); and another is a reference to the greatness of God which knows no limits (Psalms). The reference in Exodus is sometimes used to “prove” that the Feast of Tabernacles must occur after the autumnal equinox. Of course, the verse doesn’t say that. But it is true that the autumnal equinox will always fall just before or during the Feast of Tabernacles.

Difficulties with calendar by observation

There are numerous difficulties with observation as opposed to calculation. Of course, the greatest hurdle is the lack of any biblical requirement for observation.

The above is an outright LIE!  The Bible clearly commands that the month begin with the visible LIGHT of the moon Gen 1:14.  Indeed the modern word “Month” is only a corruption of the word “Moon”.

We can easily calculate when the moon is most likely to be observed if we can count up to 30 and then we can easily see the first visible light of we have normal eyesight.

The scripture says:

Num 10:10 stresses the importance in Israelite religious observance of the new month (Hebrew: ראש חודש, Rosh Chodesh, “beginning of the month”): “… in your new moons, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt-offerings…” Similarly in Num 28:11. “The beginning of the month” meant the appearance of a new moon.

It is clear from the historical evidence that the necessary calculations for establishing a calendar were known from ancient times.

That does not make such calculations biblical, especially if they are contrary to the scripturally commanded Light, and were not ancient as claimed but only proposed in 358 AD by the Rabbins and not established until 1178 A.D.. 

The Biblical First Light Calendar could be calculated since creation, but the Rabbinic calendar was only a theory in the fourth century AD, and was not finalized until 1178 A.D.

The Jews certainly understood calculations when they returned from captivity in Babylon. Virtually all historians state that during the Second Temple period (515 B.C. to A.D. 70) calculations were used to check the accuracy of witnesses. 

This was always done based on the moon’s visible light cycle as I have already shown!  It was never calculated on the basis of molads until at least the fourth century AD.  

It is unclear what happened if the calculations produced a different result from the witnesses, but the implication is that the witness would be declared a false witness in such an instance.

Entirely false!  In the Scared calendar of scripture the calculations and the witnesses had to agree and they always did agree.

According to most historians, calculations were being relied on to determine the validity of the witnesses and the establishment of the calendar during the time of Jesus Christ.

This is another falsehood!

Yes, they calculated when the new moon was possible to be seen, based on the 29 or 30 day cycle of the visible new moon and then confirmed by witnesses.  The two calculation and witnessing were mutually supportive and not mutually exclusive.  The calculation was merely to prevent someone coming in a week or so early and claim falsely claiming to have seen the new moon; or someone having seen some reflection of false image in the sky.

These calculations and witnesses were about the first LIGHT as commanded by God, and were never about the false apostate calendar based on calculating conjunctions; as these deceivers falsely imply.

It is logical to conclude that if you had witnesses this must mean they were looking for something, which implies they were looking for the crescent. But did they use the first crescent, or did they watch for the final crescent to go dark? No one knows.

The above question is spurious since the scriptures are very clear that we are to look for the LIGHT and not darkness.  They are now putting out absolute rubbish to confuse and distract from the truth in the word of God.

The following is also absolute rubbish as the ancients did not have telescopes and it is abundantly clear that the first light must be seen by  unaided human eyes.  Further the scripture and history are very clear  and not speculation!  they are now contradicting their previous admissions!  their only purpose must be to sow confusion!

But, of course, many speculate about this,

Again they contradict themselves!  God’s word is clear and NO speculation is involved as the authors themselves have repeated shown by their own scriptural and historical information.

and most commonly assume that the first crescent was the key. But what does that mean? With the aid of a telescope, an observer can spot a thin crescent when the moon is about 1 percent illuminated; but with the naked eye, it is difficult in most locations to see a crescent until the illumination reaches 5 percent.23

Again totally false it is true that the new moon is very difficult to see at less than 1% illumination; but it should be easily seen at any illumination greater than that.

This can mean the difference of several hours, and since this first crescent is only visible for a short time near sunset, this could mean the  observer would be unable to see it until the following night.

So what!  This is pointless; the new moon is confirmed when the light is visible to at least two witnesses in Judea.

No one knows the criteria that might have been used during the time of Christ. From what we can deduce from the historical and biblical record, we see that there is nothing “evil” about calculations.

I have presented that criteria several times in this series.  It is well known, so once again they are wrong.  Again that false issue of calculations conveniently distracting and deceiving the brethren away from that the two different sets of calculations are based on.

Consider the biblical references to sabbatical years, years of jubilee, counting for Pentecost, etc., all of which would require some sort of calculation. [Another red herring, these things indeed have their beginnings in the setting of a month]  by the moon And there is no biblical requirement that calendars must be determined solely by observation. In fact, to depend solely on observation creates serious issues that cannot be resolved by Scripture.

There is an absolute Biblical requirement that each month begin by the LIGHT of the new moon.  If you calculate based on the first LIGHT then you may be correct and that calculation should be confirmed by sighting.  To set the beginning of the month by observing is  absolutely in accord with the scriptures, therefore the above is another lie.

If one is relying on observation, he will need to make a whole series of decisions that have no basis in Scripture.

What an incredible falsehood!

The following displays an incredible IGNORANCE of the scriptures!

Where is the idea of having “witnesses” to determine months found in the Bible? How many witnesses are necessary?

Deu 19:15   One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established.

2 Cor 13:1   This is the third time I am coming to you. In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established.

Mat 18:16   But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established.

Where will the witnesses be stationed?

Anywhere in Jerusalem where they can see the horizon clearly.

There is no biblical statement that requires a witness and certainly there is no biblical statement that specifies Jerusalem as the correct location.

In those times before God placed his name in Jerusalem, people may well have observed the new moon locally, however when God placed his name in Jerusalem he told us to look to him and to look to Jerusalem.

1 Kings 11:36   And unto his son will I give one tribe, that David my servant may have a light alway before me in Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen me to put my name there.

1 Ch 6:6   But I have chosen Jerusalem, that my name might be there; and have chosen David to be over my people Israel.

2 Ch 7:12   And the LORD appeared to Solomon by night, and said unto him, I have heard thy prayer, and have chosen this place to myself for an house of sacrifice. 7:13 If I shut up heaven that there be no rain, or if I command the locusts to devour the land, or if I send pestilence among my people; 7:14 If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land.

7:15 Now mine eyes shall be open, and mine ears attent unto the prayer that is made in this place. 7:16 For now have I chosen and sanctified this house, that my name may be there for ever: and mine eyes and mine heart shall be there perpetually.

Is any man ignorant of the fact that Messiah will soon come to Jerusalem and set that city as capital of the whole earth?

In this end time Jesus Christ wants to begin to focus the people on his capital city in preparation for his coming, beginning with hos called out.

Jerusalem was the city of the temple and all people were to look to the temple as their place of worship and communication with God, and we are to look to God in all things and not to follow apostates false teachers away from the word of God.

Micah 4:2    And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.

If not Jerusalem, can one simply choose a location near where he or she might live? And who has the responsibility today for forming a new calendar committee and who will be on that committee? Such a committee would be necessary to duplicate the Second Temple period.

Those who are faithful to the scriptures are responsible to obeying what they learn from the scriptures.  If a number of them come together they are responsible as a group s well as individuals.

The following is irrelevant if we obey God and look to Jerusalem for the first light of the moon as God commands.  we are to look to the place of God, whether it was at Shiloh or in Jerusalem.

In the kingdom all flesh will look to Jerusalem and to Messiah the King!  It is time to begin practicing the word of God in our own lives.

The following is totally irrelevant as we have shown that the eyes of the world are to be focused on Jerusalem.

It is a fact that the location of the witness will affect the sighting of the crescent. For example, a witness on top of Mt. McKinley in Alaska will see the crescent at a different time than a witness in Florida. Which is correct? If everyone celebrating the holy days lives in one community, it is possible for observation to work (as long as everyone agrees to the rules); but how can it work with observers living around the world and without the biblical authority to make decisions?

These questions are meant to ridicule the word of God, and they  are truly getting ridiculous!

Other questions include what constitutes “seeing” the crescent? With the naked eye it will be difficult to see the crescent with less than 5 percent illumination in most locations, but with a telescope one can view the crescent with 1 percent illumination. Since a telescope would make observation more accurate, are telescopes permitted for the witnesses? [NO!  Not unless God gave Adam and Eve a telescope!]  Who can make that decision, since telescopes were not in use during the time of the Second Temple?

The following is not true and is only concerned with astronomy.  If we are concerned about obeying God this is a lie.  Again the same old false issue is used to try to deceive; the real issue which they are trying to conceal is the basis of the calculations; either the anti scriptural average time between conjunctions of the Rabbins, which is now in error; or the first visible light of the new moon as commanded in scripture.

They also falsely imply that the Biblical calendar is observation only, after admitting that is calculation confirmed by observation.  the great number of contradictions and false statements in this paper is breathtaking.

This is the most pathetically uninformed, contradictory error filled paper I have seen.

The truth of the matter is that a calculated and fixed calendar is more accurate and eliminates the confusion that results from attempts to develop a calendar based on an “observation only” approach.

But is it biblical? Of course, a better question might be, is it unbiblical? Does it contradict or violate the Scriptures?

Yes the Rabbinic calendar is contrary to scripture!

To accept an “observation only” calendar means that one will have to either develop one’s own calendar or adopt one of at least a dozen different calendars that have been proposed.

This false assumption is repeated once again; the sacred Scriptural calendar is by BOTH calculation and observation.  To keep the calculated and confirmed by observation calendar ,based on the biblical commands to begin the months with the first visible light of the moon, only means that we will obey the scriptures!

We should not think out our own calendar as the Rabbins did and the COG Groups follow; No!  We should keep what the scriptures clearly say!

In the case of the calculated [meaning Rabbinic only finalized in 1178 A.D.] calendar, there is a long history.

This is really a foolish statement. The Biblical Calendar has a much longer history; right from creation itself! and I must ask; should we really be keep something just because it is old? even though it is contrary to the word of God?  What do they say is the world’s oldest profession?  Is prostitution to be done because it is old?

If we accept the statements in Leviticus 23:4 about the responsibility of the leadership in proclaiming the holy days and the implications of Romans 3:1-2 about the Jews preserving the “oracles,” then we do have a basis for accepting the Hebrew calendar.

Absolutely the opposite is true;  each individual has a personal responsibility in the New Covenant dispensation, before God; to learn and apply and keep and teach the TRUTH of God’s word;  Not to follow every apostate away from the word of God. 

These folks are confusing the Mosaic Covenant of a National Collective Israel; with the New Covenant of personal responsibility.

By rejecting knowledge from God’s word to the point of telling multiple outright falsehoods to justify themselves and their false ways, they reveal themselves as false teachers, in rebellion against God and having the mark of the beast, which is rebellion against the word of God! 

Historians cannot say when astronomical calculations were first used in conjunction with actual visual observation, and the Bible does not answer the question. Calculations appear to have been used from the very beginning—from the time God revealed the calendar to Israel (Exodus 12; Leviticus 23; 1 Samuel 20:5, 24-27). As The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible observes, “Although it is obvious from numerous OT passages that the ancient Hebrews possessed at least a roughly calculated calendar [see 1 Samuel 20:5-27] … they have nowhere given us a complete account of their [calendar] system”24

Again that false issue designed to conceal the truth about what the calculations were based on; the first light of the moon; or the apostate Rabbinic average time between conjunctions with its anti biblical rules.

24 George R. Buttrick, ed., The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1992), Vol. 1, “Calendar,” p. 483.If, for the sake of argument, we decide to use Jerusalem as the place where the visible crescent must first be seen, how was that information provided to people living in other parts of the world over the past 2,000 years?

Easy!  They calculated when the first visible LIGHT would appear in Jerusalem!  This is easily done and I have a list of Festival dates up until 2020 right here on this blog.  I repeat for another time that the issue is NOT calculation; it is about what the calculations were based on; the first light of the moon; or the apostate Rabbinic average time between conjunctions with its anti biblical rules.

How would Church members living in England in 1500 find out that the crescent moon had been observed over Jerusalem? How would Church of God brethren living in Virginia or Pennsylvania in 1860 know that the crescent for the month of Tishri had been seen?

The Feast of Trumpets falls on the first day of the seventh month, so there isn’t much time to get the word out if one is using observation. Why would God declare a holy day on the first day of a month if He intended that observation would be the only correct way to develop the calendar?

This is a minor problem; the Scribes would calculate the earliest day the first light could appear at Jerusalem and tell the people to take that and the next day off in case the visible light was not seen on the first evening.  It is from this reasonable position that many modern Jews observe this Feast for two days.  In fact if the LIGHT is not seen on the first evening, then the second evening would and should be declared the Feast.

Again the error and false position that the Biblical Calendar ONLY uses observation is presented.

It would be impossible to plan anything in advance if you had to wait to see the crescent before you declared that to be the first day and a day of worship. Other holy days could be figured out, since they don’t occur until later in the month, but if your belief is totally based on observation, the Feast of Trumpets would be a problem every year.

If we used observation from Jerusalem today, we might be able to transmit the information with telephones and email, but it would have been impossible for God’s Church historically to have kept a calendar based on observation of the visible crescent with Jerusalem as the chosen location for sighting.

This is absolute falsehood since they would calculate based on the first visible light of the new moon as God commanded; not on the apostate Rabbinic idea of average times between the conjunctions of darkness. 

Over and over again I must insist the  Biblical Calendar can be easily calculated and should be confirmed by those in Jerusalem.  The issue is not calculation!  It is the basis on which calculation is made! The first light of the new moon as commanded by God; or the darkness of conjunctions as practiced by the apostate Rabbins.

Horses and wagons, carrier pigeons or even trains would take days or weeks to carry the information several thousand miles. And, of course, don’t forget that the Jews had been driven out of Jerusalem by A.D. 70, and Jews were not allowed in the city to even look for the crescent during most of the Middle Ages. Only in recent years have the Jews once again been given access to the city of Jerusalem and the surrounding mountains.

In order to prove that the correct biblical calendar must be based on observation, advocates must do the following:

• Find proof from the Bible that we are to use Jerusalem as the location for the sighting.

That’s easy!

• Find proof from the Bible that we are to look for the period of total darkness of the moon (and only with the naked eye without using a telescope). This assumes a nonbiblical definition of total darkness for a new moon; God commands that we are to look for the First Visible LIGHT not a time of darkness!.

Knowing the conjunction date is not necessary to see the first light although it does form a basis for starting so that we know there is no light we can expect the new light within the next few days.

• Find proof from the Bible that we are to look for the visible crescent (and only visible to the naked eye without using a telescope). This assumes a nonbiblical definition of a visible crescent for a new moon.

Absolutely false;  the biblical proofs are ample as I have already shown.

• Find proof from the Bible that authority for the calendar has been given to someone else besides the Jews.

That is also very easy; the faithful Scribes were given the responsibility to record and preserve the scriptures; NOT the Rabbins!  Further, no man has the right to go contrary to any part of the word of God!  Jesus Christ told us that we are to live by every word of God Mat 4:4; NOT to live by every word of apostates from the word of God. 

No person Jew or any other, has any right or authority to change any part of the word of God; Not the pope and not apostate Rabbins.

• Find proof from the Bible as to what to do when the moon is not visible due to cloudy weather.

That has also been explained by me.

• And, finally, find credible evidence that this was the calendar that God’s Church has used over the past 2,000 years.

This is absolute falsehood.  The Biblical Calendar was largely lost over the centuries;  It is are now being restored!  You yourselves claim the Festivals were not observed [in the COG]  for many centuries, does that mean that they should not be observed today?

However it is easily proved that the Biblical Calendar was used continuously by the Scribes since the time of Moses to today!  That in itself is quite enough to fill your non biblical requirement.

This is an appeal to false tradition and to remain in the sins of our fathers; it is saying that the increase in knowledge promised for the last days is to be rejected for our false traditions.

They are now clearly saying that if something is not consistent with their false traditions they will not accept it.  Just like the Jews of Jeremiah’s day!

 The Encyclopaedia Judaica in an article on the “Calendar” mentions that the “‘sanctification’ of the 30th [day] as the New Moon [was] subject to witnesses’ reports of the time and circumstances of their sighting of the new crescent scrutinized by a court competent to check them, and only accepted if tallying with each other and not contrary to astronomical prediction.”25 This passage confirms that calculations were required before a decision was reached.

YES, calculations were used as I have repeatedly said; but the calculations used prior to the fourth century were completely different from the later Rabbinic calendar calculations.

25 Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik, eds., The Encyclopaedia Judaica (Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007), Vol. 4, “Calendar,” p. 357, emphasis added.

According to the U.S. Naval Observatory website, the record for naked-eye sighting of the crescent is 15.5 hours from the conjunction:

Although the date and time of each New Moon can be computed exactly (see, for example, Phases of the Moon in “Data Services”), the visibility of the lunar crescent as a function of the Moon’s “age”—the time counted from New Moon—depends upon many factors and cannot be predicted with certainty.

Which is why it must be confirmed by observation!

The para below is totally irrelevant, and its premise of difficulty sighting the moon, is why God requires a minimum of two witnesses.

In the first two days after New Moon, the young crescent Moon appears very low in the western sky after sunset, and must be viewed through bright twilight. It sets shortly after sunset. The sighting of the lunar crescent within one day of New Moon [Here they use the astronomical term new moon for conjunctions to deliberately try to mislead people, read conjunction which is NOT the visible new moon] is usually difficult. The crescent at this time is quite thin, has a low surface brightness, and can easily be lost in the twilight. Generally, the lunar crescent will become visible to suitably-located, experienced observers with good sky conditions about one day after New Moon. However, the time that the crescent actually becomes visible varies quite a bit from one month to another. The record for an early sighting of a lunar crescent, with a telescope, is 12.1 hours after New Moon; for naked-eye sightings, the record is 15.5 hours from New Moon. These are exceptional observations and crescent sightings this early in the lunar month should not be expected as the norm.

Since we view from Jerusalem this para below is also irrelevant.

Obviously, the visibility of the young lunar crescent depends on sky conditions and the location, experience, and preparation of the observer. Generally, low latitude and high altitude observers who know exactly where and when to look will be favored. For observers at mid-northern latitudes, months near the spring equinox are also favored, because the ecliptic makes a relatively steep angle to the western horizon at sunset during these months (tending to make the Moon’s altitude greater).26

26 U.S. Naval Observatory website,

What you believe is irrelevant; it is what God’s word says that is relevant, and once we have a fixed observation point [Jerusalem] all these issues disappear.

Observation is probably the poorest method for developing and maintaining a calendar. It is subject to considerable error and requires numerous judgments and adjustments. We do not believe this is a better or more “godly” system than the Hebrew calendar.

Rules of Postponement—What Are They?

If we see the first visible LIGHT of the new moon Gen 1:14 etc the month begins!  Postponements are NOT biblical; they are contrary to scripture and anti Bible!   We are to obey the whole word of God without turning to the right or left; without deciding for ourselves that the day God has commanded is not co0ncenient for us!   Nowhere does the Bible permit postponements in observing the new moons or the Festivals; this is a humanly devised system that is NOT biblical as the Rabbins themselves admit.  It is human reason to make the word of God of no effect.

Since postponements are rebellion against the word of God and God’s FAITHFUL Called Out would never use them; their rules are irrelevant to God’s Called Out.

Some object to using the rules of postponement that are found in the Hebrew calendar [read modern Rabbinic calendar] calculations. Those familiar with the Hebrew calendar are aware that, from ancient times, there was a system for determining the beginning of months and it was based on the new moon. What some fail to realize is that the new moon is one of the phases of the moon. The time from when the moon goes dark (the astronomical new moon, the moment of conjunction) to when the crescent appears can stretch over a period as long as three evenings. In the Hebrew calendar, the molad, which is roughly translated as the “birth” of the moon, is determined by calculation and not observation, and it is based on the mean length of the full cycle of the moon—29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes and 31/3 seconds. Since this is not an even number of days, adjustments and rules must be applied to arrive at a usable calendar.

So, what are the “rules of postponement”? The actual Hebrew term for these rules is dehiyyot (also spelled as dehioth), which contains the concept of putting something off, hence the English term “postponement.”

Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, in its section on the Hebrew calendar, offers the following explanation of the dehiyyot:

God commanded us to begin the year at the season when he led Israel out of Egypt; Not in the autumn!  The Rabbinic Calendar is not only a departure from God’s Biblical Calendar in terms of using the darkness of conjunctions to begin the months, instead of the first light of the new moon as god commands;  it also is the exact opposite of the word of God in beginning the year in the opposite season of fall, contrary to God’s calendar new year beginning in the spring!

The [Hebrew] calendar [read apostate rabbinic calendar begun in 358 AD]  year begins with the first day of Rosh Hashanah (Tishri 1). This is determined by the day of the Tishri molad [darkness of the average time between conjunctions] and the four rules of postponements (dehiyyot). The dehiyyot can postpone Tishri 1 until one or two days following the molad. …

Imagine that!  The King of all the earth calls us to meet with him and we  decide it is not convenient for us and wait another day, then we go out to meet him on a different day than he had bidden us!  Do you really think that he is happy with us deciding for ourselves the day on which he calls us to meet with him?

This is a clear example of us using our own reasoning to do our own thing and rebelling against the word fo God!

The dehiyyot are as follows:

(a) If the Tishri molad falls on day 1 [Sunday], 4 [Wednesday], or 6 [Friday], then Tishri 1 is postponed one day.

 (b) If the Tishri molad occurs at or after 18 hours (i.e., noon), then Tishri 1 is postponed one day. If this causes Tishri 1 to fall on day 1 [Sunday], 4 [Wednesday], or 6 [Friday], then Tishri 1 is postponed an additional day to satisfy dehiyyah (a).

(c) If the Tishri molad of an ordinary year (i.e., of twelve months) falls on day 3 [Tuesday] at or after 9 hours, 204 halakim, then Tishri 1 is postponed two days to day 5 [Thursday], thereby satisfying dehiyyah (a).

(d) If the first molad following a leap year falls on day 2 [Monday] at or after 15 hours, 589 halakim, then Tishri 1 is postponed one day to day 3 [Tuesday].27

27 L.E. Doggett, “Calendars,” in Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, ed. P. Kenneth Seidelmann (University Science Books, 2006), pp. 585-587.

Two of the four rules of postponement are about astronomical issues and are important in determining the length of the following year. One is simply practical—what do you do if the molad (birth) occurs at noon or after? Since the molad can occur at any time of the day, which day is declared to be the first day of the seventh month (Tishri) if it occurs at noon or afterwards? This rule requires that the next day be declared the first day of Tishri (Rosh Hashanah—Feast of Trumpets—and also the beginning of the civil year) unless it would fall on one of the restricted days, which would then require a second day of postponement.

The rule that gets the most criticism is perhaps the simplest compared to the others but the least understood. Since there are no writings that explain the purpose of any of the rules, it is widely speculated that dehiyyah (a) is simply for convenience. But actually the Hebrew calendar is a more accurate calendar with the rules of postponement than it is without them. If one uses the 19-year cycle—which contains 235 months of 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes and 31/3 seconds—it is closer to being exact with the postponements and intercalary years currently in place in the Hebrew calendar than without them during that time span.

Here they make another false claim; these rules are not NOT a part of the Scriptural Calendar; they are in rebellion against the word of Almighty God! 

It does seem that all four rules of postponement (and not just three) assist with astronomical corrections of the Hebrew calendar. But, whatever the reason may be, these four rules are as much a part of the calendar as the rules for witnesses and the secret rules for calculations that were active during the time of Christ.

Since the rules of the Rabbinic Calendar are apostate from Scripture; the whole Rabbinic Calendar is contrary to Scripture and an Abomination to Almighty God!

The importance of Tishri 1

Here they support another rebellion against the word of God!  Beginning the year in the autumn instead of in the spring as Christ commanded;  beginning the month by the darkness of an artificial and inaccurate average time between conjunctions, instead of with the first visible light of the moon ad God commanded; and then deciding that their own selected day is not convenient and postponing God’s high Days according to their own convenience, instead of observing them as Almighty God commands!

It is time that we understood that this whole Rabbinic system is directly contrary to the word of God; and is rebellion against the word of Almighty God!  Even the Rabbins admit that it is NOT biblical and is of human design.  In fact it Ii not only non biblical it is the direct opposite of the calendar that God gave us in the scriptures!

The molad of Tishri, the seventh month of the year, is the most important date on the Hebrew calendar. All other dates for the holy days for a particular year are derived from this date.

NOT according to Almighty God and the word of God!

For much of the time, the actual day of the molad is used as the first day of the new month. However, this is not the case all the time and the start of the month may be set back, or postponed, by one day, or sometimes even by two days, after the molad of Tishri was originally calculated. But it should be clear, the molad of Tishri and the first day of the month do not exist until declared by the rules of the calendar.

The rules of postponement play a major role in establishing the first day of Tishri, which, in turn, is used to calculate the remaining festivals. Even if we cannot know the full details of their purpose, they are part of the calendar. Just as a game of baseball or basketball has unique rules, every calendar has its own unique rules. You cannot simply decide that you want to change those rules since the calendar doesn’t belong to you. All the available historical evidence tells us that these rules were developed by the proper authorities who preserved them as part of the calendar.

Tishri 1 is the date used for the beginning of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. This date is determined first and then the other dates for the holy days are calculated from this date. Neither the rules of the calendar nor the manner in which it is calculated are unbiblical.

What a monstrous LIE!  The rules, postponements  and the entire Rabbinic calendar itself is a complete departure from the word of God; NONE of it is scriptural in any way except for the weekly Sabbath cycle!  The Rabbinic Calendar  is a rebellion against God and his word and a gross abomination to our Creator; who created not only us but the LIGHTS in the heavens and the Sacred Calendar of Holy Scripture!

Another side benefit to the rule that prevents Tishri 1 from falling on Sunday, Wednesday or Friday is that it simplifies the calculations used for determining the length of a year. The length of a year on the Hebrew calendar is partially determined by the day of the week on which you begin the year. So having three restricted days in a week (Sunday, Wednesday and Friday) increases the accuracy and lessens the complexity.

The Hebrew calendar has 14 possibilities for layout based on the length of a year and the day of the week on which the year begins (molad of Tishri).28 If there were no restricted days and all seven were possible, the number of possible lengths would virtually double. So restricting the days for the molad of Tishri simplifies the calendar calculations.

28 Remy Landau, “Hebrew Calendar Science and Myths,” ed. Jonathan Hirshon,, p. 8.

Do the rules of postponement “move” the holy days?

Some say, “You can’t postpone God’s holy days!” Or they say, “That’s just Jewish legalism! And it’s not right. The Jews have added their own ideas to the calendar for the sake of convenience.”

Now see the LIE below!  It is Almighty God who determines the beginning of the year at the time [season] when Israel left Egypt; and he has declared that the LIGHT in the heavens is to set the months and seasons [Festivals and Holy Days].  It is the first visible LIGHT of the new moon in Judea, at the season that Israel went out of Egypt which sets the Holy Days Biblically!  These folks do the exact opposite and set the new year in the fall by the darkness and not by the light; clearly demonstrating that the Rabbinic Calendar is of darkness and NOT of the light of the word of God.

In reality, until the molad of Tishri has been determined, there are no holy day dates. Criticism that the Hebrew calendar somehow moves the holy days through its rules of postponement really misses the point.

All calendars have rules; but false calendars have rules not based on God’s commandments and instructions!  The apostate Rabbinic Calendar [referred to by these people as the “Hebrew Calendar”]  has rules contrary and antithetical to the sacred calendar of Holy Scripture revealed by our Creator and recorded by Moses!

YES!  The Rabbinic Calendar DOES move the High Days including the appointed New moons from their biblically appointed dates!

All calendars have rules. In the Gregorian calendar, the month of February usually has 28 days. But every fourth year, we add an extra day, and February then has 29 days. No one makes the claim that we are wrongly postponing March 1 and thereby changing the start of spring. Everyone understands that it is necessary to add an extra day every so often so the right number of days fit into the year. The Hebrew calendar is no different. It has rules and procedures that are necessary to keep it in sync with respect to the movements of the sun and moon.

An appalling lie below.  The entire Rabbinic Calendar is unbiblical by the admission of the Rabbins themselves!  The Rabbins openly admit that they created their own calendar which has nothing to do with the scriptures!  And it is absolutely clear that the Rabbinic Calendar is the exact opposite of what Almighty God has commanded regarding the calendar for his people!

There is nothing unbiblical about any of the rules of postponement, and it can be shown that they all have an impact on the astronomical calculations and the accuracy of the calendar. The claim is made that dehiyyah (a) is solely for convenience. This is popularly found in books on the calendar, but is this true? There is no credible historical evidence to support this claim. It is true that dehiyyah (a) prevents the Day of Atonement from falling immediately before or after the weekly Sabbath. It is clearly more convenient to avoid this happening, but is this the reason for the rule? We simply don’t know.

Is the full moon always on the 15th?

No it is NOT!  The moon may appear full for several days, but in the Rabbinic calendar the 15 day of the month is often NOT a full moon!  Further there is absolutely NO biblical requirement to start any Feast on a full moon!  We are commanded to begin the months with the first visible light of the moon and are then to count to the fifteenth day to begin the Feasts, regardless of whether the fifteenth day falls on a full moon or not.

The following paragraph is correct; although it in NO WAY justifies postponements as they imply!

Some conclude that there must always be a full moon on the evening of the first day of Unleavened Bread and the evening of the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles since both of these occur on the 15th day of the month. Of course, there is no scripture that states such. We have already seen that the mean length of a lunar month is approximately 29.5 days, which means the middle of the month (the full moon) is at the 14.75 day mark. So day 15 of the month would be the approximate halfway point. This means that on the evening of the 15th day of the month, we should expect to see a full moon in the sky, since the full moon falls halfway during the moon’s monthly cycle. But the 15th day may or may not be the time when there is a 100 percent, fully illuminated moon.

The following is false; the term full moon always refers to the precise night when the moon is completely full and not to a period of several days; they are trying to obfuscate to justify postponements.  They should have left off with the above paragraph which is correct.

One must realize that, in general, “full moon” is a reference to one of the phases of the moon that lasts for approximately three nights. Most almanacs and calendars have the full moon listed on the day that the sun, moon and earth align and the moon is fully illuminated. This can be calculated precisely to the minute. But, just as the astronomical new moon is only one way to define the new moon, so the astronomical full moon is only one way to define the full moon. The best way to look at it is that the new moon and the full moon are phases of the moon’s cycle rather than exact moments in time (the astronomical new moon and full moon).

The above is an attempt to lie and make it sound reasonable;  the month begins with the first visible light of the moon according to God’s word, full moons are not relevant to the festivals; the year begins at the season when Israel came out of Egypt and NOT in the autumn; and Almighty God has NEVER given any man the right to change his word which is what postponements are all about!

They claim that the best way to see these things is by lying about them and loosening definitions so that they can somehow slip their errors in!  What utter rubbish!  What rebellion against the word of Almighty  God; to reason their own ways!

Full moons are irrelevant to God’s Biblical Calendar; and they are irrelevant to the rabbinic calendar as well.

When the moon is between 95 percent and 100 percent full, it is difficult for one to tell the difference with the naked eye. The 15th day of the seventh month will always begin on one of these three evenings during the full moon phase on the Hebrew calendar. This will also be true of the Night to Be Much Observed, which is the evening of the 15th day of the first month. It should be kept in mind that there is no scripture that requires there be a “perfect” full moon (100 percent illumination) on the night of the Feast of Tabernacles or the Night to Be Much Observed. In fact, the moon may not even be visible at the time when it is perfectly full (100 percent illuminated). Since the moon continues through its phases whether it is day or night, if the astronomical full moon occurs during the daytime, then technically you will already be looking at a “waning” moon, with less than 100 percent illumination, by that night.

This quote from the U. S. Naval Observatory may be helpful:

Although Full Moon occurs each month at a specific date and time, the Moon’s disk may appear to be full for several nights in a row if it is clear. This is because . . .

The answer to the question below is obvious;  ONLY God and his word are in authority; and any departure from the word of God is rebellion against Almighty God!

Who has the authority to give the final answer on any of these issues? Over the years more than a dozen different calendars have been put forward as being the “true biblical calendar,” but none of them answered the above questions from Scripture. What scripture precisely defines the new moon? What scripture explains the calculation of leap years? What scripture lists Jerusalem as the only location for sighting the new moon? What scripture gives the percentage of the surface of the moon that would qualify as a legitimate sighting of the crescent? What scripture authorizes witnesses outside Jerusalem? What scripture gives an individual living in the 21st century the authority to answer these questions in developing his own version of the calendar? And without Scripture on his side, by what authority will this calendar be established?

I have answered all of these questions repeatedly over the years and they know it.  I have also answered them throughout this series in response to the misrepresentation in this paper.

Here they claim that some apostate Jewish body had the authority to proclaim the calendar and the High Days; don’t be deceived by this;  There is a great difference between proclaiming what God had commanded; and deciding for themselves contrary to the word of God!

Then there is the simple fact that the authority of any Jewish body was overpassed by the authority of Jesus Christ and his disciples after the ascension of Christ to the Father to be accepted as our High Priest. 

Jesus Christ was made our High Priest and replaced Moses as our Mediator and Aaron as our High Priest.  But these COG Groups have replaced Jesus Christ as their High Priest and chosen to follow the Rabbins who are apostate even from Moses.

Based on the Jewish interpretation of the Old Testament Scriptures, we see that Moses and Aaron were given the responsibility to “proclaim” the festivals, which required them to maintain a calendar. Jesus Christ accepted the role of the Sanhedrin as those who sat in Moses’ seat, which gave them responsibility for the calendar. And the apostle Paul referenced the Jews as having been given the oracles to preserve. While we don’t know exactly what all the oracles contained, we do know that the Hebrew calendar was preserved by the same body of people who preserved the Scriptures.

This is an utterly false statement;  The Rabbins twisted, distorted, reasoned around and mutilated the scriptures; making the word of God of no effect by the reasoning’s.  Further the Rabbins did NOT preserve the scriptures!  The scriptures were preserved by the Scribes who have rejected the apostate Rabbinic Calendar first published in 358 AD and completed in 1178 AD, throughout its history as being contrary to scripture!  The Scribes grew into the Karaite Movement.

Finally the Rabbins added to the scripture their own reasoning’s, declaring them to be even more binding than the written scriptures of the Tanakh; in clear rebellion against the commandment of God.

Deu 5:31  But as for thee, stand thou here by me, and I will speak unto thee all the commandments, and the statutes, and the judgments, which thou shalt teach them, that they may do them in the land which I give them to possess it. 32 Ye shall observe to do therefore as the Lord your God hath commanded you: ye shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the left.

In order to follow the command to keep the Festivals, the Jews were required to keep a calendar.

There are two issues that should be addressed before concluding this study. One is a point of history, and the other is a point of responsibility.

What does Church history tell us about this issue? In reality, very little. Much of the past 2,000 years of Church history is hidden in obscurity. But we can state that whenever there is any historical record of the Church observing the holy days—pick any year—the observance was always based on the Hebrew calendar.

The above is disingenuous deceit;  they KNOW that there are NO historical  records of the Festivals being kept by a non Jewish “Church” an din the first century the Church of God kept the New moons as Christ and the Biblical calendar and the Scribes did; NOT as the Rabbins began to do almost 300 years later! In fact the authors  themselves believe in the Herbert Armstrong claim that he restored Festival observance in the COG that he claimed had been lost in the early church. 

And yes, HWA did use the Rabbinic Calendar because he was himself deceived into thinking it was scriptural and went by the first visible light of the new moon.  The deceit is in the innuendo that they are implying that there are records of festival observance according to the Rabbinic apostate calendar in history, when they actually mean only HWA.

There is no record of a body of believers using any other calendar until very recent times when some Church of God groups have rejected the Hebrew calendar and developed their own calendar and their own rules. But is this the correct thing to do?

I have NOT developed my own calendar!  The calendar I use comes directly out of the Bible and is also used by the Scribes who preserved the scriptures the Karaite [Karaite is an Anglicized form of the Hebrew word Karaim or Bnei Mikra, which means “Followers of Scripture”.]  which developed from the ancient Scribes. 

In the paragraph below we finally cone to the crux of the matter with the COG Groups.  The primacy of Peter!  They think they have the right to bind and loose and to sit in judgment of the word of God!

Please do listen to our audios from the first one to understand this subject.

Audio sermons  Please click on the small arrow in front of the desired selection to play.

The second point is the one of responsibility. Who has the responsibility for making decisions when the biblical text isn’t clear, or doesn’t provide an answer to a question? In most cases, that has been the responsibility of Church leadership. If the Church doesn’t have the authority to render judgment in such matters, then who does? What was Christ speaking about in Matthew 16:19 and 18:18 when He stated that the disciples had the responsibility to render judgments, to bind and to loose? Did Christ invest authority in the leadership of the Church, beginning with the disciples of His day?

Yes, those who are faithful to Christ, have the authority of scripture as long as they do so according to the scriptures.  In the case of the Calendar the components of the Biblical Calendar are very clear in the scriptures; therefore a departure from scripture into apostate Rabbinism is a departure form holy Scripture and a departure from God and God’s word!.

It should be clearly understood that no one has the authority to instruct a person to do anything contrary to Scripture.

Then WHY are you doing so?

But what about decisions that cannot be determined by Scripture? Who has that responsibility, or is it “every man for himself” as we read in Judges 21:25?

The Biblical calendar I swell represented in the scriptures and in history an dis well known and easily determined!  There is NO confusion about the calendar of the Holy Scriptures.

it is the authors of this paper who are departing from scripture to do as they think right, contrary to the word of God.

In the concluding paragraph they leave out the only acceptable choice for a faithful zealous Called Out person;  We are to learn and keep the Biblical Calendar, clearly revealed in the scriptures; and we are not to deviate from that, into ANY of the choices that they offer below!

These men depart from the word of God to follow false teachers contrary to the word of God, and then do their very best to justify their sin with all manner of falsehood.

At the conclusion of the matter, someone must decide which calendar we will use for observing the holy days. Will we create our own, borrow one from another Church group—or should we follow the Hebrew calendar? The decision of the Church of God, a Worldwide Association—and the lesson of history—is that the Hebrew calendar is the appropriate calendar for observing God’s festivals.

Thus they fall away from the word of God to follow apostate men.  How very very sad.

I expect by now that the COGWA paper with all its contradictions, false statements, irrelevant points used to confuse and faulty reasoning has many befuddled.

To make things very clear I am putting up a side by side comparison of the Biblical Calendar and the Rabbinic Calendar.

Our visitors must then decide whether we should obey God, or follow a man devised calendar which is antithetical to Holy Scripture.  

This is one of the great contradictions in the COGWA paper; they condemn men devising their own calendar; which is exactly what thy support in following the apostate Rabbins; and then they choose to follow the man devised calendar instead of God’s Scriptural Calendar!

They deny that there are any instructions for measuring time in the scriptures, when that is an obvious falsehood; just to justify their rebellion against the word of God.  In other words they close their eyes to the  word of God in willful blindness to the truth; and embrace the reasoning’s of men which are absolutely contrary to the word of God.

The issue here is P R I D E!  The main COG Groups are too PROUD to admit that they have been mistaken and have things to learn.  They think of themselves as the fountain of all wisdom and truth and will not accept the facts of history or the word of God, instead clinging to error and even being willing to teach falsely rather than admit to error.

With that attitude they refuse to follow Jesus Christ and the word of God, and have cut themselves off from him!


God’s Biblical Calendar The modern Rabbinic Calendar
The year begins at God’s command, at the season that Israel left Egypt in the spring. The year begins by man’s reasoning in the Autumn.
Each month is commanded by God to begin at the first visible light of the new moon; and in later times as seen from Jerusalem when God placed his name there. The beginning of months is set by an artificial average time between the darkness of conjunctions at Jerusalem and is now in serious error.
God’s Biblical Calendar was set in motion and commanded by God at the creation, Gen 1:14. The Rabbinic Calendar began in the fourth century AD and developed by men over the centuries up until 1178 AD.  Man’s Rabbinic Calendar is thousands of years newer than the Scriptural calendar.
God declared when to begin the months and then declared his Feasts according to his commanded beginning of months. Uses a man devised anti scriptural beginning in darkness for the months, and then postpones the Feasts from their God appointed times [and their own false appointed times] for the convenience of men, instead of obeying God.
Was preserved by the Scribes as part of Holy Scripture since the days of Moses.  It has also been kept and used by the Scribes and those who followed after them through history, continuously from Moses; culminating in  the Karaite Movement of Judaism. Was created by Rabbins who had nothing to do with preserving Scripture, and who actually claim that their rules and reasoning’s have more authority than the  Holy Scriptures preserved by the Scribes.  The Rabbinic Calendar having its earliest beginnings in the fourth century AD.
The calculations of the Biblical Calendar are based on the first visible light of the new moon as commanded by God; simply counting the days between the first visible light of the new moon, based on the moons cycle of 29.5 days. God’s Biblical Calendar is based on LIGHT. The calculations of the Rabbinic Calendar are based on  an artificial average time between the darkness of conjunctions at Jerusalem and is now in serious error. The Rabbinic Calendar is one based on DARKNESS and rebellion against God.
God commands us to observe the first light of the new moons as appointed times to assemble before him to worship and learn of him.  Jesus Christ has the trumpets sound, to summon his people to appear before him in sincere acceptance of his Godhood and Kingship over them. The Rabbins observe the new moons with worship, even though they go by darkness and not light.  If they insist on following the Rabbins, why do the COG Groups reject assembling to worship before God on the new moons as the Rabbins do and as God clearly commands in his word?

There is another half truth that is commonly taught by these folks:  They will say that Satan is the author of division [implying division from them]; when in fact Satan is the author of division from God and the word of God.  They leave out the fact that God is the author of division from Satan calling the followers of Satan to repentance and to turn their back on Satan and his ways to learn and keep the word of God.

Satan is not divided in his own house; he divides people away from and against God and the word of God.

Mat 12:25   And Jesus knew their thoughts, and said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; and every city or house divided against itself shall not stand: 26 And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom stand?

Let me be clear here:  as Jesus said, we need to judge men by their fruits.  If they divide us from God to follow the traditions of men; they are following Satan and should quickly repent. 

If they insist on their own ways and reject any part of the word of God, they will be cast into severe correction.

You must judge by the word of God, whether the Rabbinic Calendar in scriptural or whether it rejects and is contrary to the word of God; then you will know who is causing division from God and his word.  Me and the calendar of God’s word; or those who depart from God’s word to follow the unscriptural traditions of men?

YES,  Satan causes division from God:  However it is God who causes division from Satan! 

We must prove all things by the word of God and hold fast to the word of God, separating ourselves from the false traditions of men. 

To say that I am causing division is absolutely true!

I am revealing the truth of the word of God which teaches us the difference between the Holy and the profane, and calling all people to repentance and a zeal for the whole word of God to learn and keep it!

I am obeying the words of scripture!

Heb 4:10   For he that is entered into his [Christ’s] rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from his.

Let us work very hard to become like Christ through a diligent effort to learn and keep the whole word of God turning away from the false traditions of men.

The word of God divides and separates men from sin and the following of every false way!  It is the word of God that we are to follow and NOT the false traditions of men!

11 Let us labour therefore to enter into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief. 12 For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.

2 Ti 2:15   Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.

Psalm 119:104   Through thy precepts I get understanding: therefore I hate every false way.

105 Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path.

106 I have sworn, and I will perform it, that I will keep thy righteous judgments.

Yes, keeping the word of God, divides and separates us from those who follow false ways!

That division from evil is of God and not from Satan, as these hypocrites falsely declare; they are hypocrites indeed for they are the very ones who divided themselves from UCG!  they split the COG into scores of schisms and then say that I am dividing them because I teach them to keep the whole word of God!

Indeed they divide men from God by leading them with lies away from the word of God into the false traditions of men, which are contrary to Holy Scripture!  they are in rebellion and they lead the brethren into rebellion against the word of God! 

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